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Methods: Deciding What to Design In-Young Ko iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Information and Communications University (ICU) iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Fall 2005 ICE0575 Lecture.

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Presentation on theme: "Methods: Deciding What to Design In-Young Ko iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Information and Communications University (ICU) iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Fall 2005 ICE0575 Lecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Methods: Deciding What to Design In-Young Ko iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Information and Communications University (ICU) iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Fall 2005 ICE0575 Lecture #8 Contextual Design III

2 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Announcements Contextual Interviews? Contextual Interviews? Homework #5 has been posted Homework #5 has been posted

3 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Picture of the Day: Seminar Notices on a Wall of NSH

4 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Today ’ s Class Risk and reward Risk and reward A Case Study: London Ambulance System Problem A Case Study: London Ambulance System Problem EVR presentations - Innovation and the evolutionary nature of requirements EVR presentations - Innovation and the evolutionary nature of requirements Innovator's Dilemma – TTA Innovator's Dilemma – TTA Sources of Innovation – HMC (Path Finders) Sources of Innovation – HMC (Path Finders) Soul of New Machine – Posdata (Trinity) Soul of New Machine – Posdata (Trinity) The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

5 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Getting Returns on IT Investment Investment in new technologies Investment in new technologies Electricity -- payoff took about 40 years Electricity -- payoff took about 40 years Return came by redesigning factory layout Return came by redesigning factory layout Investment in IT Investment in IT Productivity paradox Productivity paradox Return on IT Return on IT Large Large Enormous variablility Enormous variablility What makes it pay off? What makes it pay off? Redesigning work Redesigning work Less hierarchical, employees empowered, decision-making at appropriate places Less hierarchical, employees empowered, decision-making at appropriate places Erik Brynjolfsson and Lorin M. Hitt, Beyond the Productivity Paradox, Communications of the ACM, August 1998/Vol. 41, No. 8, pp

6 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Recognize the Risks Risk is inevitable Risk is inevitable No change  fall behind, set inefficiencies in concrete No change  fall behind, set inefficiencies in concrete Large change  will new process really work? Large change  will new process really work? Risk/reward tradeoff Risk/reward tradeoff Reward Risk Breakeven The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

7 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Evaluating the Risk Know where the organization want to be on tradeoff Know where the organization want to be on tradeoff Take risk for “ killer ” advantage? Take risk for “ killer ” advantage? Want to become a little more efficient? Want to become a little more efficient? Does the organization depend on this software to function? Does the organization depend on this software to function? Is it a value-added increment? Is it a value-added increment? What happens if it fails? What happens if it fails? Can you talk about risk honestly with your client? Can you talk about risk honestly with your client? The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

8 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University A Case Study: London Ambulance System

9 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University London Ambulance System Manual Dispatch Call Taking Call Taking Control Assistant (CA) writes down the call details on a pre-printed form Control Assistant (CA) writes down the call details on a pre-printed form Incident location is identified from a map book Incident location is identified from a map book Incident form is placed into a conveyor belt system Incident form is placed into a conveyor belt system The conveyor belt then transports the forms to a central collection point The conveyor belt then transports the forms to a central collection point Resource Identification Resource Identification Staff member collects the forms from the central collection point Staff member collects the forms from the central collection point Uses information on the form to decide which resource allocator should deal with it Uses information on the form to decide which resource allocator should deal with it three London Divisions - North East, North West, and South three London Divisions - North East, North West, and South Identifies potential duplicated calls Identifies potential duplicated calls Resource allocator then uses status and location information provided through the radio operator and noted on forms maintained in the "activation box" for each vehicle, decides which resource should be mobilised Resource allocator then uses status and location information provided through the radio operator and noted on forms maintained in the "activation box" for each vehicle, decides which resource should be mobilised This resource is then also recorded on the form which is passed to a despatcher This resource is then also recorded on the form which is passed to a despatcher Resource Mobilisation Resource Mobilisation The despatcher will telephone the relevant ambulance station (if that is where the resource is) or will pass mobilisation instructions to the radio operator if the ambulance is already in the field The despatcher will telephone the relevant ambulance station (if that is where the resource is) or will pass mobilisation instructions to the radio operator if the ambulance is already in the field This whole process should take no more than 3 minutes. This whole process should take no more than 3 minutes. All information for London Ambulance example taken from Report of the Inquiry Into The London Ambulance Service (February 1993).

10 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University London Ambulance System Flow Model Resource Allocator -Decides which resource to mobilize Form Router -Collect forms from all CAs -Route form to correct resource allocator -Identify duplicates Radio Operator -Update records of resource utilization -Contact ambulance drivers Control Assistant -Record call details -Locate incident on map -Place incident form on conveyor Caller -Give location of emergency -Describe emergency Dispatcher -Contacts resource Ambulance Station -Send ambulance Ambulance request Printed form Status and location information Form noting resource Instructions Ambulance -Respond Instructions Callback status request Status request Status info The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

11 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University London Ambulance System Problems with Manual Dispatch Identification of the precise location can be time consuming due to often incomplete or inaccurate details from the caller and the consequent need to explore a number of alternatives through the map books. Identification of the precise location can be time consuming due to often incomplete or inaccurate details from the caller and the consequent need to explore a number of alternatives through the map books. The physical movement of paper forms around the Control Room is inefficient. The physical movement of paper forms around the Control Room is inefficient. Maintaining up to date vehicle status and location information from allocators' intuition and reports from ambulances as relayed to and through the radio operators is a slow and laborious process. Maintaining up to date vehicle status and location information from allocators' intuition and reports from ambulances as relayed to and through the radio operators is a slow and laborious process. The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University. 1/2

12 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University London Ambulance System Problems with Manual Dispatch Communicating with ambulances via voice is time consuming and, at peak times, can lead to mobilization queues. Communicating with ambulances via voice is time consuming and, at peak times, can lead to mobilization queues. Identifying duplicated calls relies on human judgment and memory. This is error prone. Identifying duplicated calls relies on human judgment and memory. This is error prone. Dealing with call backs is a labor intensive process as it often involves CA's leaving their posts to talk to the allocators. Dealing with call backs is a labor intensive process as it often involves CA's leaving their posts to talk to the allocators. Identification of special incidents needing a Rapid Response Unit or the helicopter (or a major incident team) relies totally on human judgment. Identification of special incidents needing a Rapid Response Unit or the helicopter (or a major incident team) relies totally on human judgment. The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University. 2/2

13 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University London Ambulance System Flow Model Resource Allocator -Decides which resource to mobilize Form Router -Collect forms from all CAs -Route form to correct resource allocator -Identify duplicates Radio Operator -Update records of resource utilization -Contact ambulance drivers Control Assistant -Record call details -Locate incident on map -Place incident form on conveyor Caller -Give location of emergency -Describe emergency Dispatcher -Contacts resource Ambulance Station -Send ambulance Ambulance request Printed form Status and location information Form noting resource Instructions Ambulance -Respond Instructions Callback status request Status request Status info The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

14 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Questions??


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