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Methods: Deciding What to Design In-Young Ko iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Information and Communications University (ICU) iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Fall 2005 ICE0575 Lecture.

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Presentation on theme: "Methods: Deciding What to Design In-Young Ko iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Information and Communications University (ICU) iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Fall 2005 ICE0575 Lecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Methods: Deciding What to Design In-Young Ko iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Information and Communications University (ICU) iko.AT. icu.ac.kr Fall 2005 ICE0575 Lecture #7 Contextual Design II

2 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Announcements Next EVRs on 9/27 Next EVRs on 9/27 Innovator's Dilemma Innovator's Dilemma Sources of Innovation Sources of Innovation Soul of New Machine Soul of New Machine Contextual Design Project Contextual Design Project The mini project plans are also due by 9/27 The mini project plans are also due by 9/27 Choose at least two people (actual users) for contextual interviews Choose at least two people (actual users) for contextual interviews You can focus on an analogous task if you cannot meet the real customer of your project You can focus on an analogous task if you cannot meet the real customer of your project

3 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Picture of the Day: The Atrium at The Newel-Simon Building

4 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Today ’ s Class Work Models Work Models Consolidating models Consolidating models Redesigning work Redesigning work The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

5 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University What is Innovation?

6 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Comments on Your Work Models You are capturing and summarizing the data You are capturing and summarizing the data You are not imagining, assuming, inventing, filling in the gaps yourself You are not imagining, assuming, inventing, filling in the gaps yourself You are summarizing concrete examples You are summarizing concrete examples Authors recommend a group process for constructing the models Authors recommend a group process for constructing the models Each interviewer will have a partial picture Each interviewer will have a partial picture Takes some skill to manage the process Takes some skill to manage the process Seems fairly unstructured, bordering on chaotic Seems fairly unstructured, bordering on chaotic Need a level of structure appropriate for the task Need a level of structure appropriate for the task The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

7 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Flow Models Usually the “ central ” model of the five Usually the “ central ” model of the five Capturing the basic work flow is fairly straightforward Capturing the basic work flow is fairly straightforward Look for subtleties while interviewing: Look for subtleties while interviewing: Conversation in the hallway Conversation in the hallway s s Phone calls Phone calls Ask questions until you understand Ask questions until you understand Be alert for problems, breakdowns Be alert for problems, breakdowns The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

8 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Sequence Models You are not designing a sequence of activity You are not designing a sequence of activity You are not trying to capture all possible sequences You are not trying to capture all possible sequences You are capturing concrete, observed sequences of actions, based on actual data You are capturing concrete, observed sequences of actions, based on actual data May be branches, loops if indicated by data May be branches, loops if indicated by data Look for subtleties and intent while interviewing: Look for subtleties and intent while interviewing: Don ’ t assume “ small ” things are unimportant Don ’ t assume “ small ” things are unimportant Get feedback on your interpretations about intent Get feedback on your interpretations about intent The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

9 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Artifact Models Structure of artifacts often reveals structure of work Structure of artifacts often reveals structure of work Informal structure -- annotations -- are often very important Informal structure -- annotations -- are often very important Reveal where formal structure is inadequate Reveal where formal structure is inadequate If possible, collect actual artifacts or copies of them in interviews If possible, collect actual artifacts or copies of them in interviews The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

10 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Cultural Models Basic assumptions, values that influence behavior Basic assumptions, values that influence behavior Organizational, group, market forces Organizational, group, market forces e.g., knowledge management system design; culture of sharing e.g., knowledge management system design; culture of sharing Influence is described from your user ’ s point of view Influence is described from your user ’ s point of view What pressure does your interviewee feel or exert? What pressure does your interviewee feel or exert? The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

11 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Physical Models Structure of physical layout often reveals structure in the work Structure of physical layout often reveals structure in the work e.g., piles of stuff in one ’ s office e.g., piles of stuff in one ’ s office Accessibility to other people, resources Accessibility to other people, resources The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

12 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Consolidation Creating a coherent understanding of the work whole customer populations support Creating a coherent understanding of the work whole customer populations support Identifying what aspects of work a customer population support Identifying what aspects of work a customer population support Recognizing work practice of customers Recognizing work practice of customers Understanding the overall work structure Understanding the overall work structure Understanding a company’s product strategy Understanding a company’s product strategy Systemic thinking – developing a coherent understanding of work based on actual customer data (by induction) Systemic thinking – developing a coherent understanding of work based on actual customer data (by induction)

13 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Affinity Diagram Key: Make sense of all the notes without basing analysis just on your assumptions and prejudices Key: Make sense of all the notes without basing analysis just on your assumptions and prejudices Result should be a coherent “ voice of the user ” Result should be a coherent “ voice of the user ” Hierarchical arrangement Hierarchical arrangement No single “ correct ” affinity diagram No single “ correct ” affinity diagram There are many “ incorrect ” diagrams! There are many “ incorrect ” diagrams! Set a time limit, don ’ t let it drag on forever Set a time limit, don ’ t let it drag on forever It ’ s hard to know when you ’ re done It ’ s hard to know when you ’ re done Keep this (and all consolidated models) visible to the team Keep this (and all consolidated models) visible to the team The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

14 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Consolidating Flow Models Key: Recognizing roles Key: Recognizing roles Collection of responsibilities Collection of responsibilities Accomplish a single intent Accomplish a single intent Need to understand work well enough so that you can Need to understand work well enough so that you can Recognize the “ same ” responsibility described in different words Recognize the “ same ” responsibility described in different words Different responsibilities that superficially look the same Different responsibilities that superficially look the same Identify responsibilities that “ hang together ” Identify responsibilities that “ hang together ” Different instances of the same role should have very similar arcs in flow diagrams Different instances of the same role should have very similar arcs in flow diagrams The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

15 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Consolidating Sequence Models Key: Recognizing tasks and abstract steps Key: Recognizing tasks and abstract steps Task: sequence of actions that accomplish some meaningful result Task: sequence of actions that accomplish some meaningful result Abstract step: occupy same role in sequence, can think of supporting them in a single “ workspace ” Abstract step: occupy same role in sequence, can think of supporting them in a single “ workspace ” For example, user specifies shipping address in e- commerce Web site For example, user specifies shipping address in e- commerce Web site Resembles, but not the same as a use case Resembles, but not the same as a use case Not specifying interaction with the system Not specifying interaction with the system Still focusing on the user ’ s work Still focusing on the user ’ s work Make sure all intents are accounted for Make sure all intents are accounted for The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

16 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Consolidating Artifact Models Key: Recognizing common parts, role that they play in the work, important structure Key: Recognizing common parts, role that they play in the work, important structure Relation between representation and problem solving applies to your users as well as your own work Relation between representation and problem solving applies to your users as well as your own work Don ’ t lose sight of subtleties -- you won ’ t succeed if you oversimplify Don ’ t lose sight of subtleties -- you won ’ t succeed if you oversimplify Record what is common AND variants Record what is common AND variants The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

17 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Consolidating Physical Models Key: Understanding how the environment supports and hinders the work Key: Understanding how the environment supports and hinders the work Several types of models Several types of models Individual work spaces Individual work spaces Group spaces Group spaces Sites Sites Users impose structure that helps them do the work, and you want to capture this Users impose structure that helps them do the work, and you want to capture this Physical spaces impose constraints, and you want to capture this Physical spaces impose constraints, and you want to capture this The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

18 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Consolidating Cultural Models Key: Recognizing influencers and influences that exert similar pressures, express similar emotions Key: Recognizing influencers and influences that exert similar pressures, express similar emotions What will affect the way in which users do their work? What will affect the way in which users do their work? What pressures will they feel and respond to? What pressures will they feel and respond to? The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

19 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University A Design Room Picture from Contextual Design, by Hugh Beyer and Karen Holtzblatt

20 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Work Redesign Has always been an implicit step Has always been an implicit step  focus on it as a distinct task in the development work There are heuristics for identifying problems in each type of consolidated model There are heuristics for identifying problems in each type of consolidated model These provide hints -- you need to use your judgment These provide hints -- you need to use your judgment You must understand the overall picture in order to make good choices You must understand the overall picture in order to make good choices The content of this slide is adopted from the lecture materials of the Methods course (17-652) at Carnegie Mellon University.

21 Fall ICE 0575 – Methods: Deciding What to Design © In-Young Ko, Information and Communications University Questions??


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