2 ObjectivesIdentify factors affecting the accuracy, validity and reliability of survey dataHow to prevent and correct errors,How to avoid common causes of mis-reportingThe essential role of supervision and team interaction in the field
3 Main Components of Survey Quality!! Supervision of interviewersNon-responsePending interviewsFieldwork control sheetsMonitoring interviewer performanceSpot checkingObserving interviewsEditing of questionnaireEvaluating interviewersReturning questionnaires to central office
4 Supervision of Interviewers Training is a continuous process.Observation and supervision throughout the fieldwork are a part of the trainingTeam supervisors and field editors play very important roles in continuing this training and in ensuring the quality of MICS3 data.
6 Non Response One of the most serious problems for MICS No response is failure to obtain information for selected households, eligible women, or children.A serious bias to be minimized by supervisors and editorsInterviewers will need to make return visits to households in the evening or on the weekends
7 Types of Non ResponseNo response may be classified into three basic types:Type 1: the interviewer is unable to locate the selected household;Type 2: the interviewer is unable to locate the eligible woman or the caretaker of the children under five for the individual interview;Type 3: the respondent refuses to be interviewed.
8 TYPE 1 The interviewer is unable to locate the household Occupied structure inaccessibleStructure not found.Structure non-residential, vacant, or demolished.
9 TYPE 2The interviewer is unable to locate the respondent for an individual interviewNo one home at time of callRespondent temporarily absent
10 TYPE 3 The respondent refuses to be interviewed Number of refusals should be closely monitoredReasons for frequent refusalsWhat to do?Approach respondent from her point of viewPostpone interview to another day.Have field editor carry out the interview
12 Handling Pending Interviews Pending interview-interview that was not completed and requires a call backWho keeps track of pending interviews and how? Supervisors and interviewers via control sheetsPlanning and completing call backs for pending interviews before leaving the clusterRequires a good division of work to ensure that all planned interviews are completed
13 Maintaining Fieldwork Control Sheets The work of interviewers is monitored and evaluated by keeping accurate record of assignmentsBoth supervisors and interviewers have control forms to maintain.These forms should be returned to the director of field operations along with the completed questionnairesInterviewer is responsible for ensuring that control sheet is up-to-date y giving it back to the supervisor
14 Systematic Spot Checking of Household Composition Spot checking is used to improve data quality by identify common problems and poor skillsHow to spot-check household composition?Supervisors should complete again columns 2-8 in the HH questionnaire and compare with that of the interviewerConduct about 5% of households (5-6 per week)All team members must be spot-checked.If problems exist, the supervisor should review the household schedule with interviewer, review the MICS3 manual with the teamTake more serious actions if problem persists with individual interviewer
15 Monitoring Interviewer Performance How? By observing interviews and carrying out field editingWhen to observe interviews? Throughout field work but more frequently at the beginning of the survey and again toward the end
16 Observing Interviews To evaluate and improve interviewer performance To look for errors and misconceptions that cannot be detected through editingWhy? Precise but inaccurate answersWho? The supervisors but only by female supervisors for the women’s questionnaireHow often? 5-6 interviews per weekWhen? At any time during the dayHow to observe and interview? without disrupting the interview, taking notes about the observed issuesWhat to do after? Supervisors speaks to interviewers to provided the needed feedback
17 Household Visits and Individual Interviews At the end of each day field editor should:First, review the Household and Individual QuestionnairesSecond, using the questionnaires, verify the information about the results of the interviewCheck that all the households or dwellings are listed on the Interviewer's Assignment Sheet and agrees with those selected from household listing form or map for clusterThere can never be fewer household questionnaires than selected households or dwellings, but there can be more households questionnaire than selected ones
18 Evaluating Interviewers Performance Daily discuss the quality of interviewers workPoint out mistakes discovered during observation of interviews or noticed during editingDiscuss examples of actual mistakes, but be careful not to embarrass individual interviewers.Re-read relevant sections from the Interviewer's Manual with the team to resolve problems.Encourage the interviewers to talk about any situations they encountered in the fieldDiscuss whether situations are handled properly, and how to do it in the future
20 Editing Questionnaires in the Field To ensure that women and children are not omitted from the Household QuestionnaireTo ensure that woman’s and children’s dates of birth are properly recordedAs explained before this is the work of the field editorWhere and When? Throughout fieldwork but specially at the beginning and end of fieldworkWho can help? The supervisor can assistResults and errors are discussed with interviewersWhen necessary, interviewers may need to contact respondents to correct errors or inconsistenciesDisciplinary actions should be considered and used
21 Editing Questionnaires in the Office A computer program checks each questionnaire and print out a listing of all errors foundIf the errors are major ones, an entire questionnaire may be omitted from the analysis.Errors and inconsistencies observed in the office can not be corrected only imputed (!)Feedback to the field teams can be provided on errors found during office editing
22 GENERAL INSTRUCTION TO EDIT QUESTIONNAIRES According to MICS3 ManualUnder no circumstances should we make up an answer
23 Returning Questionnaires to the Central Office Checking the Household Structure Include all individual questionnaires into the household Questionnaires.Verify if more than one individual questionnaire (women or children under five) pertain to the household?Check household questionnaires for the number of eligible women and children, and their corresponding line numbersVerify number of Individual Questionnaires, and that identification lines are correct and consistent between questionnairesFollow procedures of communication with central officeFor incomplete interviews, include blank questionnaires with only the identification information and the result code
24 Forwarding Questionnaires to the Central Office Instructions from the director of field operationsPackaging and protection of questionnairesConfidentiality of data in questionnairesProper instruction developed and implemented for transportation of questionnaire to avoid their loss or information