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Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 31 First Aid. Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid2 Motivation First-aid might be needed anywhere, at any time,

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Presentation on theme: "Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 31 First Aid. Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid2 Motivation First-aid might be needed anywhere, at any time,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 31 First Aid

2 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid2 Motivation First-aid might be needed anywhere, at any time, and without warning. Studying basic first- aid skills will help you be prepared in emergencies.

3 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid3 Lesson overview What is first aid? How can you be prepared for an emergency? What are universal precautions? What are the four steps to take for most emergencies? What are common emergencies?

4 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid4 Lesson overview (cont’d) How should you treat a sprain? How should you treat a broken bone? How should you treat insect bites and stings? How should you treat burns? How should you deal with poisoning? How should you deal with a foreign object in the eye? How should you treat a nosebleed? How should you treat fainting?

5 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid5 Lesson overview (cont’d) How should you treat heat-related illnesses? What are severe emergencies? How can you help a person who is choking? What steps can you take to treat shock? How should you treat severe bleeding? What is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)?

6 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid6 Warm Up Questions CPS Questions (1-2)

7 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid7 Quick Write Suppose that you witnessed a car accident. List the actions you would take to provide help and the order in which you would take them. (Note: Use “Pick a Student” button in CPS.)

8 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid8 What is first aid? First aid — immediate temporary care for an injured/ill person until he/she can get professional help Knowing first aid may Help prevent further damage Speed recovery Make the difference between life and death

9 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid9 How can you be prepared for an emergency? Learn basic first-aid skills. Have emergency numbers on hand. Know location of family health records. Keep first-aid supplies at home and in car. Know how to use them.

10 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid10 How can you be prepared for an emergency? (cont’d) Make your own first-aid kit or buy one. Basic first-aid supplies Instruments (e.g., tweezers) Equipment (e.g., thermometer) Medications (e.g., antiseptic ointment) Dressings (e.g., bandages) Miscellaneous (e.g., face mask)

11 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid11 What are universal precautions? Universal precautions — actions that prevent spread of disease by treating all blood as if it were contaminated Examples Wear protective gloves. Use a face mask or shield. Cover open wounds on your body. Avoid touching objects that have had contact with victim’s blood. Wash hands thoroughly after giving first aid.

12 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid12 What are the four steps to take for most emergencies? Recognize the signs. Decide to act. Call for help. Provide care until help arrives.

13 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid13 What are common emergencies? Sprains Bruises Broken bones Insect bites Burns Poisoning Foreign objects in eye Nosebleed Fainting Heat-related illnesses

14 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid14 Learning Check #1 CPS Questions (3-4)

15 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid15 How should you treat a sprain? Symptoms Swelling Bruising For minor sprains, use R.I.C.E. method Rest Ice Compression Elevation

16 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid16 How should you treat a broken bone? Open fracture — complete break with one or both sides of the bone piercing the skin Closed fracture—does not break the skin Symptoms—pain, swelling, misshapen appearance Have X-ray taken. This is the only way to be sure bone is broken.

17 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid17 How should you treat insect bites and stings? General symptoms — pain and swelling at site of bite or sting Severe reactions include rash, difficulty breathing, and signs of shock. Require medical help

18 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid18 How should you treat insect bites and stings? (cont’d) To treat bites, wash affected area and apply a special lotion. To treat stings, remove stinger and apply ice or a cold pack.

19 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid19 How should you treat insect bites and stings? (cont’d) First aid for tick bites Use tweezers to grasp tick by head/mouth parts where they enter skin. Pull tick directly outward. Place tick in alcohol to kill it. Clean bite with disinfectant.

20 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid20 How should you treat burns? Treatment depends on The amount of skin burned The location of the burn The depth of the burn

21 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid21 How should you treat burns? (cont’d) First-degree burn Affects only outer layer of skin Usually makes skin red May cause swelling/pain To treat first-degree burn Cool burn with water or apply cold compresses. Cover burn with sterile bandage.

22 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid22 How should you treat burns? (cont’d) Second–degree burn Affects first and second layers of skin Causes blisters Makes skin red and splotchy Usually causes severe pain/swelling Requires immediate medical attention

23 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid23 How should you treat burns? (cont’d) A third-degree burn Involves all layers of skin May affect fat, muscle, and bone May be charred black or appear dry/white May cause little or no pain

24 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid24 How should you treat burns? (cont’d) To treat a third-degree burn Call for medical help. Treat victim for shock. Do not remove burned clothing. Cover burn with bandage or cloth. Do not apply cold water. Keep victim still and provide fluids.

25 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid25 How should you deal with poisoning? Call nearest poison-control center. Provide information about poison- control victim and poison. Follow instructions provided by center. Eliminate any direct contact between poisonous chemical and victim’s clothing/skin.

26 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid26 How should you deal with a foreign object in the eye? If the object is in your eye Don’t rub. Try to flush object out with clean water. If unsuccessful, seek help. If object is in someone else’s eye Locate object. Remove floating object on eye’s surface with cotton swab or clean cloth. If unsuccessful, seek help.

27 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid27 How should you treat a nosebleed? Pinch nose shut with thumb and index finger. Breathe through mouth. Keep nose pinched for 5 to 10 minutes. Get medical assistance if bleeding. Lasts for 15+ minutes Is excessive

28 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid28 How should you treat fainting? If you feel faint, lie or sit down and place head between knees. If someone else faints Leave person lying down. Check airway. Raise legs. Loosen clothing. Call for help.

29 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid29 How should you treat heat- related illnesses? Heat cramps—painful, involuntary muscle spasms that usually occur during heavy exercise in hot weather Treatment includes Resting and cooling down Drinking water or a sports drink with electrolytes Doing gentle stretching exercises Gently massaging cramp

30 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid30 How should you treat heat- related illnesses? (cont’d) Heat exhaustion symptoms—faintness; nausea; rapid heartbeat; and hot, red, dry, or sweaty skin Treatment includes Moving to cool place Lying down and slightly elevating feet Loosening clothing Drinking cold (not iced) water Keeping cool with water and fanning Keeping careful watch

31 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid31 How should you treat heat- related illnesses? (cont’d) Heatstroke—most serious form of heat illness Main sign: marked increase in body temperature (above 104°F) Other signs: rapid heartbeat and rapid/shallow breathing Treat person for heat exhaustion and call for emergency medical assistance.

32 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid32 Learning Check #2 CPS Questions (5-6)

33 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid33 What are severe emergencies? Severe emergencies are emergencies in which a person may have only minutes to live unless the correct treatment is provided. In such emergencies, try to stay calm, and call for help.

34 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid34 How can you help a person who is choking? Choking occurs when person’s airway becomes blocked by an object. Signs of choking include Expression of fear Clutching throat Wheezing/gasping Turning reddish purple Bulging eyes Inability to speak

35 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid35 How can you help a person who is choking? (cont’d) For an adult or older child, use abdominal thrusts—quick, upward pulls into the diaphragm to force out an obstruction blocking the airway. The abdominal thrusts technique From behind, wrap arms around person’s waist and tip person slightly forward.

36 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid36 How can you help a person who is choking? (cont’d) Make a fist. Place thumb side of fist just above person’s navel but below breastbone. Grasp fist with other hand. Quickly thrust inward and upward. Repeat thrusts until food/object is dislodged. If person becomes unresponsive, call for medical help and begin CPR.

37 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid37 How can you help a person who is choking? (cont’d) If you are choking, give yourself abdominal thrusts. Make fist and position it slightly above navel. Grasp fist with other hand and thrust inward and upward into abdomen until object pops out. Or lean over a firm object (back of chair) and press abdomen into it.

38 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid38 What steps can you take to treat shock? Shock—circulatory system fails to deliver enough oxygen to vital tissues/organs Causes include Injury, including burns Severe infection Heat Poisoning Blood loss Heart attack

39 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid39 What steps can you take to treat shock? (cont’d) Signs of shock include Cool, clammy, pale or gray skin Weak and rapid pulse Slow, shallow breathing Dilated pupils and dull look in eyes Feeling faint, weak, confused, or anxious

40 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid40 What steps can you take to treat shock? (cont’d) To treat shock Call for medical help. Have person lie down on back and stay still. Raise the feet higher than the head. Loosen tight clothing and keep person warm. Do not give person anything to drink. Roll person to side if vomiting or bleeding from mouth occurs.

41 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid41 How should you treat severe bleeding? Have person lie down. If possible, raise bleeding site above heart level. Wear protective gloves if possible. Apply direct pressure to wound with clean cloth. If unsuccessful, apply pressure to the artery that supplies blood to wounded area.

42 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid42 How should you treat severe bleeding? (cont’d) For arm bleeding Use four fingers to press on inside of upper arm. Press artery at this point against arm bone. To find artery, feel for pulse below round muscle of biceps.

43 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid43 How should you treat severe bleeding? (cont’d) For leg bleeding Use heel of your hand to press groin at area shown here. Press artery at this point against pelvic bone. You may need to use both hands.

44 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid44 What is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)? Use CPR if person loses consciousness and becomes unresponsive. CPR combines rescue breaths with chest compressions to restore breathing and circulation Only properly trained people should perform CPR.

45 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid45 What is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)? (cont’d) The first steps of CPR are the ABCs—airway, breathing, and circulation. Airway Look inside victim’s mouth and remove any obstruction. Lay person flat on firm surface. Gently tilt head back with one hand and lift chin with other. If there are head/neck injuries, open airway by lifting jaw.

46 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid46 What is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)? (cont’d) Breathing Pinch person’s nostrils shut. Take normal breath and place your mouth over victim’s and form a seal. Give 2 slow breaths (about 2 seconds each). Victim’s chest should rise with breaths.

47 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid47 What is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)? (cont’d) Circulation Check for circulation by watching for response to rescue breaths (breathing, coughing, or movement). If no signs, a person trained in CPR should begin chest compressions immediately.

48 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid48 What is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)? (cont’d) To combine rescue breaths with chest compressions: Position your hands. Begin chest compressions and rescue breathing. Give 15 chest compressions at rate of about 100 per minute. Pause to give two rescue breaths. Check for signs of circulation after four cycles, then every few minutes.

49 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid49 Lesson review First aid—immediate temporary care for injured/ill person until professional help arrives Be prepared for emergencies. Learn basic first-aid skills. Have list of emergency phone numbers. Know location of family health records. Keep first-aid supplies at home and in car and know how to use them. Universal precautions—actions taken to prevent spread of disease by treating all blood as if it were contaminated

50 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid50 Learning Check #3 CPS Questions (7-8)

51 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid51 Lesson review (cont’d) The four steps to take for most emergencies Recognize signs. Decide to act. Call for help. Provide care until help arrives. Common emergencies: sprains, bruises, broken bones, insect bites, burns, poisoning, foreign objects in eye, nosebleeds, fainting, and heat-related illnesses Treat minor sprains with R.I.C.E. method. X-ray any possibly broken bones.

52 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid52 Lesson review (cont’d) Allergic reactions to insect bites/stings need professional medical help. First aid for insect bites: wash affected area and apply special lotion. First aid for insect stings: remove stinger and apply ice/cold pack. For tick bites, carefully remove tick with tweezers. Clean wound with disinfectant. First aid for burns depends on amount of skin and location and depth of burn. Burn classifications: first, second, or third degree

53 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid53 Lesson review (cont’d) Call nearest poison control center to treat poison victims. If skin comes into direct contact with poisonous chemical Remove any clothing in contact with chemical. Remove chemical from skin’s surface. Call nearest poison-control center. For foreign object in eye, try to flush object out of eye with clean water. If unsuccessful, get medical assistance.

54 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid54 Lesson review (cont’d) To treat nosebleed Pinch nose shut with thumb and index finger. Breathe through mouth. Keep nose pinched for 5 to 10 minutes. If bleeding lasts 15+ minutes or if there is a lot of blood, seek medical assistance.

55 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid55 Lesson review (cont’d) If you feel faint, lie or sit down and place head between knees. If someone else faints Leave person lying down. Raise legs above the level of head. Loosen any tight clothing. If person does not regain consciousness in 1 to 2 minutes, call for help. If person not breathing, call for help and start CPR if trained.

56 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid56 Lesson review (cont’d) Heat cramps treatment: resting, cooling down, drinking fluids, gentle stretching/massage Heat exhaustion treatment: taking person to cooler place, having person lie down and elevate feet, loosening clothing, drinking cool water, and keeping cool

57 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid57 Lesson review (cont’d) Heatstroke treatment: same as for heat exhaustion but requires emergency medical assistance Help a choking adult or older child by using abdominal thrusts technique. If you are choking, expel object with abdominal thrusts technique or by leaning over firm object and pressing abdomen into it.

58 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid58 Lesson review (cont’d) For shock victim Call for medical help. Have person lie down on back; raise feet higher than head. Keep person still and warm. Loosen tight clothing. Do not give the person fluids. If person vomits or bleeds from the mouth, roll him/her to side to prevent choking.

59 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid59 Lesson review (cont’d) To stop severe bleeding, have person lie down. Try to raise bleeding site above level of heart. Try to use protective gloves. Apply direct pressure to wound with clean cloth. If unsuccessful, apply pressure to artery that supplies blood to wounded area. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) combines rescue breaths with chest compressions to restore breathing and circulation. Only properly trained people should perform CPR.

60 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid60 Review Questions CPS Questions (9-10)

61 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid61 Summary What is first aid? How can you be prepared for an emergency? What are universal precautions? What are the four steps to take for most emergencies? What are common emergencies? How should you treat a sprain?

62 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid62 Summary (cont’d) How should you treat a broken bone? How should you treat insect bites and stings? How should you treat burns? How should you deal with poisoning? How should you deal with a foreign object in the eye? How should you treat a nosebleed? How should you treat fainting?

63 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid63 Summary (cont’d) How should you treat heat-related illnesses? What are severe emergencies? How can you help a person who is choking? What steps can you take to treat shock? How should you treat severe bleeding? What is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)?

64 Be Health SmartLesson 3, Chapter 3, First Aid64 Next Done—First aid techniques for common and severe medical emergencies Next—Benefits of Physical Activity


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