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Trait Approach I.Introduction II.Common Characteristics III.Gordon Allport IV.Henry Murray V.Raymond Cattell VI.The Big Five Model VII.The Interpersonal.

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Presentation on theme: "Trait Approach I.Introduction II.Common Characteristics III.Gordon Allport IV.Henry Murray V.Raymond Cattell VI.The Big Five Model VII.The Interpersonal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trait Approach I.Introduction II.Common Characteristics III.Gordon Allport IV.Henry Murray V.Raymond Cattell VI.The Big Five Model VII.The Interpersonal Circumplex VIII.Modern Applications of the Trait Approach IX.Criticisms & Limitations X.Strengths

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3 I. Introduction

4 II. Common Characteristics Focus on average behavior Less concerned with underlying mechanisms Less to say about personality change

5 III. Gordon Allport Nomothetic versus ideographic approaches to personality Central traits Secondary traits Cardinal traits The proprium

6 IV. Henry Murray Personology Psychogenic needs Some examples: – Achievement – Affiliation – Dominance – Nurturance – Play

7 V. Raymond Cattell Factor analysis The 16 Personality Factor Inventory

8 FactorContrast WarmthCold, selfishSupportive, comforting IntellectInstinctive, unstableCerebral, analytical Emotional StabilityIrritable, moodyLevel headed, calm AggressivenessModest, docileControlling, tough LivelinessSomber, restrainedWild, fun-loving DutifulnessUntraditional, rebelliousConforming, traditional Social AssertivenessShy, withdrawnUninhibited, bold SensitivityCoarse, toughTouchy, soft ParanoiaTrusting, easy-goingWary, suspicious AbstractnessPractical, regularStrange, imaginative IntroversionOpen friendlyPrivate, quiet AnxietyConfident, self-assuredFearful, self-doubting Open-mindednessSet-in-one’s-waysCurious, exploratory IndependenceOutgoing, socialLoner, craves solitude PerfectionismDisorganized, messyOrderly, thorough TensionRelaxed, coolStressed, unsatisfied

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10 VI. The Big Five Approach TraitContrast O penness Down to earth Conventional, uncreative Prefer routine Imaginative Original, creative Prefer variety C onscientiousness Lazy Aimless Quitting Hardworking Ambitious Persevering E xtraversion Reserved Loner Quiet Affectionate Joiner Talkative A greeableness Antagonistic Ruthless Suspicious Acquiescent Softhearted Trusting N euroticism (emotional Stability Calm Even tempered Hardy Worrying Temperamental Vulnerable

11 VII. The Interpersonal Circumplex

12 Sample Scatter Plot

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14 Correlation Matrix Trait Forceful Assertive Meek Timid Kind Agreeable Cold Cruel1.00

15 Interpersonal Dimensions Forceful Assertive Meek Timid Kind Agreeable Cold Cruel Hostile Friendly Dominant Submissive

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19 Laws of Complementarity Dominance pulls submission Submission pulls dominance Friendliness pulls friendliness Hostility pulls hostility

20 Interpersonal Circumplex Types Hostile-Submissive Types: – Rebellious Distrustful Personality – Self-effacing Masochistic Personality Friendly-Submissive Types – Docile Dependent Personality – Cooperative Overconventional Personality

21 Interpersonal Circumplex Types Friendly-Dominant Types: – Responsible Hypernormal Personality – Managerial Autocratic Personality Hostile-Dominant Types – Competitive Narcissistic Personality – Aggressive Sadistic Personality

22 VIII. Modern Applications of the Trait Approach Type A Behavior The MMPI

23 MMPI Example of an “empirically derived” test Questions “earn” their way onto the final test by statistically differentiating different groups of people (people with and without depression, people with and without schizophrenia, people with and without alcohol problems, etc…)

24 Simulated MMPI Items

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26 MMPI Clinical Scales

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30 IX. Criticisms & Limitations

31 X. Strengths

32 The Biological Perspective I.Introduction II.Genetic Factors in Personality III.Eysenck’s Theory of Personality IV.Temperament V.Cerebral Activation Patterns VI.Evolutionary Personality Theory

33 I. Introduction

34 II. Genetic Factors in Personality

35 TraitGenetic (Heritability) Familial Environment Non-shared Environment Well-being Social Potency Achievement Social Closeness Stress Reaction Alienation Aggression Control Harm Avoidance Traditionalism Absorption Positive Emotionality Negative Emotionality Constraint (Tellegen et al., 1988)

36 III. Eysenck’s Theory of Personality

37 Eysenck’s Supertraits or Types Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism

38 Eysenck’s Hierarchical Model Extraversion ImpulsivenessSociability HR 1 HR 2 HR 3 SR 1 SR 2 SR 3 SR 4 ActivityLiveliness Excitability …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

39 Eysenck’s Two-Factor Model

40 Extraversion & Mood Positive Mood Score

41 IV. Temperament

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43 Buss & Plomin’s Temperament Factors Activity – Vigor, tempo Emotionality – Fear, anger, distress Sociability – Attention of others, share activities, interaction (Impulsivity)

44 Temperament and Genetics Degree of Correlation

45 V. Cerebral Activation Patterns

46 VI. Evolutionary Personality Theory

47 What if Charles Darwin had been a psychologist? “So, tell me about your mother…”

48 The Humanistic Approach I.Introduction II.The Personality Theory of Carl Rogers III.Modern Humanistic Concepts

49 I. Introduction

50 Roots of the Humanistic Movement Existential philosophy The ideas of Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow

51 Common Characteristics of Humanistic Theories An emphasis on personal responsibility Here and now focus Phenomenology Growth

52 II. The Personality Theory of Carl Rogers

53 Rogers’ Fully-Functioning Person Trust their feelings/Intuitions Experience feelings intensely & deeply Accept and express all feelings Less likely to conform to social roles Present focused Honest & open Open to and learn from experience Constantly developing & growing Oriented towards fully living life Show care and concern for others Creative

54 Key Definitions Self-Concept: An organized set of beliefs that you hold about yourself. (Who are you? Describe yourself.) Self-Esteem: One’s feelings of high or low self- worth (How do you feel about your self- concept?)

55 Basic Needs Self-consistency: The absence of major conflict between self-perceptions Congruence: Consistency between self- perceptions and experience

56 Anxiety & Defense Subception: the unconscious perception of incongruence Triggers defenses of distortion & denial

57 Self-Concept Incongruence Experience

58 Self-Concept Congruence & the Fully Functioning Person Experience

59 Conditional & Unconditional Positive Regard Additional needs: – Positive regard – Positive self-regard Conditional positive regard from parents creates “conditions of worth”

60 Conditions of Worth Personal standards that dictate when a person can feel OK about him/herself.

61 Sample Q-Sort Statements I am optimistic. I often feel guilty. I am intelligent. I express my emotions freely. I understand myself. I am lazy. I am generally happy. I am moody. I am ambitious I am an impulsive person. I get anxious easily. I make strong demands on myself. I get along easily with others. I often feel driven. I am self-reliant. I am responsible for my troubles.

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63 The Q-Sort & Psychotherapeutic Change

64 III. Modern Humanistic Concepts

65 Self-Esteem & Failure (Brockner et al., 1987) Grade on Second Test

66 Social Attribute Ratings & Self-Esteem (Brown & Smart, 1991) Rating of Social Attributes

67 Do you want to compare your exam to another student’s? HighLow worse than you. better than you. Self-esteem Told this student did… “Sure!” “NO WAY!”“Let’s do it.” “Why Not.”

68 Self-Esteem & Western Culture Exposure in Asian-Canadians (APA, 1999)


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