VI. The Big Five Approach TraitContrast O penness Down to earth Conventional, uncreative Prefer routine Imaginative Original, creative Prefer variety C onscientiousness Lazy Aimless Quitting Hardworking Ambitious Persevering E xtraversion Reserved Loner Quiet Affectionate Joiner Talkative A greeableness Antagonistic Ruthless Suspicious Acquiescent Softhearted Trusting N euroticism (emotional Stability Calm Even tempered Hardy Worrying Temperamental Vulnerable
VIII. Modern Applications of the Trait Approach Type A Behavior The MMPI
MMPI Example of an “empirically derived” test Questions “earn” their way onto the final test by statistically differentiating different groups of people (people with and without depression, people with and without schizophrenia, people with and without alcohol problems, etc…)
Rogers’ Fully-Functioning Person Trust their feelings/Intuitions Experience feelings intensely & deeply Accept and express all feelings Less likely to conform to social roles Present focused Honest & open Open to and learn from experience Constantly developing & growing Oriented towards fully living life Show care and concern for others Creative
Key Definitions Self-Concept: An organized set of beliefs that you hold about yourself. (Who are you? Describe yourself.) Self-Esteem: One’s feelings of high or low self- worth (How do you feel about your self- concept?)
Basic Needs Self-consistency: The absence of major conflict between self-perceptions Congruence: Consistency between self- perceptions and experience
Anxiety & Defense Subception: the unconscious perception of incongruence Triggers defenses of distortion & denial
Conditions of Worth Personal standards that dictate when a person can feel OK about him/herself.
Sample Q-Sort Statements I am optimistic. I often feel guilty. I am intelligent. I express my emotions freely. I understand myself. I am lazy. I am generally happy. I am moody. I am ambitious I am an impulsive person. I get anxious easily. I make strong demands on myself. I get along easily with others. I often feel driven. I am self-reliant. I am responsible for my troubles.