Presentation on theme: "UNIT 13- PSYCHOLOGY FOR SPORTS PERFORMANCE P1 M1 D1 Personality."— Presentation transcript:
UNIT 13- PSYCHOLOGY FOR SPORTS PERFORMANCE P1 M1 D1 Personality
WHAT IS PERSONALITY ??? Research the various definitions of personality… Cattell (1965): that which tells what a man will do when placed in a given situation Personality is the set of individual characteristics that make a person unique and will determine their relatively consistent patterns of behaviour
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY A number of theories have been proposed over the years to describe personality and its affect on performance. Yet there are always factors that dont get taken into account within each one… Trait Theory ( dominated much of early research) Martens Schematic View Psychodynamic theory Social Learning Theory (SLT) Situational approach Interactional approach A number of theories have been proposed over the years to describe personality and its affect on performance. Yet there are always factors that dont get taken into account within each one… Trait Theory ( dominated much of early research) Martens Schematic View Psychodynamic theory Social Learning Theory (SLT) Situational approach Interactional approach Each person appears different in the decisions they make and how they behave in a variety of situations… PERSONALITY looks at these differences and how they affect performance.
TRAIT TRAIT THEORY Dominated early personality studies Based on the nature approach From Psychologists such as Eysenck and Cattell Person is the key to personality, not the situation stable and enduring Personality traits are stable and enduring, and can therefore be used to predict behaviour in all situations Eg – if someone is competitive, then they will be seen as competitive in all situations Eysenck and Cattell
Cattell identified 16 different personality traits, such as: Dominance aggressive versus passive Emotional Stability calm and stable versus high-strung Liveliness enthusiastic versus serious Privateness pretentious versus unpretentious Reasoning abstract versus concrete Rule Consciousness moralistic versus free-thinking Self-Reliance leader versus follower Cattell suggested that these traits are in everyone, with the strongest overriding the secondary traits. To help your understanding of this, you could try Cattells trait personality test at ell-16-factor.html ell-16-factor.html
An example of a result from Cattells personality test. Factorlow scorehigh scoreScore Warmthcold, selfishsupportive, comforting50% Intellectinstinctive, unstablecerebral, analytical78% Emotional Stabilityirritable, moodylevel headed, calm42& Aggressivenessmodest, docilecontrolling, tough74% Livelinesssomber, restrainedwild, fun loving74% Dutifulnessuntraditional, rebelliousconforming, traditional50% Social Assertivenessshy, withdrawnuninhibited, bold50% Sensitivitycoarse, toughtouchy, soft38% Paranoiatrusting, easy goingwary, suspicious70% Abstractnesspractical, regularstrange, imaginative38% Introversionopen, friendlyprivate, quiet62% Anxietyconfident, self assuredfearful, self-doubting74% Openmindednesscloseminded, set-in-wayscurious, exploratory50% Independenceoutgoing, socialloner, craves solitude70% Perfectionismdisorganized, messyorderly, thorough82% Tensionrelaxed, coolstressed, unsatisfied46%
Eysenck used a series of questions that would then allow him to plot personality on a graph like this. You can take Eysencks trait personality test here: eysenck.html eysenck.html 2 Major personality dimentions: – The Extroversion – Introversion dimension – The Stable – Neurotic dimension
- Trait approach suggests that personality is enduring across all situations, and that the causes of behaviour comes from within the person… - They argue that the situation that the person finds themselves in has a very limited effect on behaviour.
Strengths Easily administered through questionnaires Weaknesses Doesnt take situation into account Eg – You will always be competitive Therefore seen as simplistic Trait theorists have tried to argue that personality traits are more stable than they really are. Questionnaires have been criticised Honesty Objectivity In conclusion, personality trait theory cannot predict sporting success. However, it can give an indication why people choose different sports. Trait theory can predict behaviour in a limited manner. But, traits cannot predict how an individual will behave in a particular situation.
SCHEMATIC VIEW MARTENS SCHEMATIC VIEW In this view, personality is seen as having three different levels that are related to each other Psychological Core Typical responses Role-related behaviour In this view, personality is seen as having three different levels that are related to each other Psychological Core Typical responses Role-related behaviour
Is what people often call the real you It is the part that contains your beliefs, values and interests and attitudes. All of these are seen as relatively stable – that is they are unlikely to change over a period of time. Is what people often call the real you It is the part that contains your beliefs, values and interests and attitudes. All of these are seen as relatively stable – that is they are unlikely to change over a period of time. Are the usual ways that you respond to the world around you: For example, an intentional foul may make you angry in football, because you feel that this is unsportsmanlike behaviour. However, in normal everyday life, you may be quiet and shy when you meet people for the first time. These are your normal responses to these situations. Are the usual ways that you respond to the world around you: For example, an intentional foul may make you angry in football, because you feel that this is unsportsmanlike behaviour. However, in normal everyday life, you may be quiet and shy when you meet people for the first time. These are your normal responses to these situations. This is often determined by the circumstances that you find yourself in. This is seen as a very changeable element of personality Effectively, your personality changes as your perception of your environment changes. For example, you may be a captain for one team, where you take on specific roles and demonstrate a lot of leadership behaviours Later in the same week, you may be a substitute for another team, where you will have to follow a lot of different instructions.
PSYCHODYNAMIC PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY Id – instinctive drive Unconscious and makes you do certain things without thinking about them For example – the expectations as a premier league player steps up to take a penalty may make them freeze Ego – Conscious part Super Ego – moral conscience The effects of these two can be seen on our football player in a penalty shoot out, when the fear of missing causes them to refuse to take a penalty Not often used in sport as it focuses on reasons that come from within, and tends to ignore the environment, which is an essential part of the athletes situation. However, it is useful, in that it helps to explain that not all behaviour is under the conscious control of the athlete. The psychodynamic approach says that personality is made up of conscious and unconscious elements
(SLT) SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Personality is determined by the environment in which an individual finds themselves as well as the experiences they had when they grew up. By Albert Bandura and later by Richard Cox (1998) 2 mechanisms of learning: MODELLING REINFORCEMENT
It is widely held, that there are two mechanisms of learning – Modelling Observe and imitate parents and siblings. As we get older, it becomes our friends, celebrities, sports stars or anyone else we look up to. Individuals are likely to model themselves on someone they can relate to – age, gender, sport, social background As they observe the behaviour, they attempt to copy it. – Reinforcement This means that when behaviour is positively rewarded, then it is likely to be repeated. As youngsters we learn from our parents. In sport, there is a system of negative reinforcement to stop negative behaviour. Think about yellow cards in football, and the sin bin in rugby. 4 Stages: Attention Retention Motor Reproduction Motivational Response
Social learning theory suggests that our personality is made up of the sum of our experiences, and is not inherited. It suggests that we are made up of what we have seen and learned, and that our behaviour will vary from one situation to the next. As such it leads us into the next theory – Situational theory.
SITUATIONAL SITUATIONAL APPROACH Based on Social Learning Theory… It says that our behaviour is based on the situation that we find ourselves in rather than the specific personality traits. There is some support for the situational approach in sport, as extrovert personalities, such as Ronnie OSullivan participate in sports like snooker that are more suited to introverts, needing concentration and focus. However, these are not conclusive, and for every one that does support this theory, there are 5 that dont. Consequently, it has been argued that situation is a more powerful predictor of behaviour than personality traits. However, this has not been fully supported by research, and is in no way conclusive.
INTERACTIONAL INTERACTIONAL APPROACH Trait Theory: Doesnt look at the situation Situational Theory: Not everyone responds in the same way… Interactional Approach: Considers persons psychological traits and the situation they are in as a predictor of behaviour. Behaviour= f (personality, environment Interactional Approach: Considers persons psychological traits and the situation they are in as a predictor of behaviour. Behaviour= f (personality, environment A trait- state approach is needed to assess an individuals personailty traits and then assess how such traits affect their behaviour in a situation (state) E.G: An athlete with high anxiety levels as a trait, would have an exaggerated response to a specific situation… (pre kick-off)
TYPES OF PERSONALITY… Type A and B Type A: -Highly competitive and strong desire to win -Achievement orientated -Eat fast, walk fast, talk fast, strong sense of urgency -Aggressive, restless, impatient -Find it difficult to delegate and needs to be in control -High level of stress Type B: -Less competitive -More relaxed -Delegate work easily -Take time to complete tasks -Calm, laid back and patient -Low level of stress High blood pressure and higher risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Sport participation promotes qualities that Type B poses
PERSONALITY AND SPORTS PERFORMANCE
TASK… For P1, learners must first define personality and then describe how personality affects sports performance… The description must include – a definition, personality theories, personality types and the effects on sports performance. P1, P2 M1 D1 Will be on 1 document. P1, P2 M1 D1 Will be on 1 document.