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Preschool Years.

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Presentation on theme: "Preschool Years."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preschool Years

2 Children Learn What They Live
If a child lives with criticism, He learns to condemn. If a child lives with hostility, He learns to fight. If a child lives with ridicule, He learns to be shy. If a child lives with shame, He lives to feel guilty. If a child lives with tolerance, He learns to be patient

3 If a child lives with encouragement,
He learns confidence. If a child lives with praise, He learns to appreciate. If a child lives with fairness, He lives justice. If a child lives with security, He learns to have faith. If a child lives with approval, He learns to like himself.

4 The Preschool Years Sociocultural and Personality Development
Developmental Issues and Coping Patterns Aggression and Personal Behavior Peers Play and Development of Social Skills Understanding Self and Others Family Dynamics

5 I- Developmental Issues and Coping Patterns
Children Ages 2-6 must learn to manage a wide range of feelings and emotions: Positive Feelings Negative Feelings Joy Anger Affection Fear Pride Anxiety Jealousy Frustration Pain

6 What are the Causes of Fear and Anxiety?
Fear is a response to a specific situation. A child may fear the dark or the sound of thunder. Anxiety is a generalized emotional state. A child may experience regular and continuous feelings of unease, often without knowing why. What are the Causes of Fear and Anxiety?

7 How Can We Help Children Cope with Fear and Anxiety?
Modeling by parents Reduce unnecessary stress Professional help (systematic desensitization) Participant modeling

8 How Do Children Cope with Fear & Anxiety? Defense Mechanisms
Identification Projection Denial Reaction Formation Displacement Regression Rationalization Repression Withdrawal

9 Emotion Regulation Claire Kopp (1989)
Dealing with emotions in a socially acceptable ways Western societies expect children to inhibit the display of some emotions such as: anger and distress affection and joy sensuality and sexual curiosity

10 Developmental Conflicts (Autonomy vs. Shame) (Initiative vs. Guilt)
Compliance Autonomy Mastery and Competence Guilt Shame

11 Shame Associated with the desire to undo aspects of the self Shame leads the feeling of helplessness Guilt Involves the desire to undo certain behaviors. It is distinct from the self. It shouldn’t affect the person’s core identity Guilt may lead to the feeling of remorse.

12 Erik Erikson Resolving the Conflicts
Autonomy-vs.-Shame Early Part of Preschool Years (18 months – 3 years) Children either become more independent and autonomous if their parents encourage exploration and freedom. They can experience shame and self-doubt if they are restricted and overprotected.

13 Erik Erikson Resolving the Conflicts
Initiative- vs.-Guilt (age 3-age 6) Children view of themselves undergoes major change as they face conflicts between the desire to act independently of their parents and the guilt that comes from the unintended consequences of their actions. Parents who react positively can help their children avoid experiencing guilt.

14 II- Aggression and Prosocial Behavior
Hostile Aggression is behavior that is intended to harm another person Instrumental Aggression is behavior that is not intended to harm, but instead is incidental to gaining something from another person Assertiveness refers to standing up and defending one’s rights

15 Causes for Aggression Frustration-Aggression-Hypothesis (Discredited)
Punishment Modeling and Aggression

16 Prosocial Behavior Reward and Punishment
Role Playing (acting out roles to see things from the other person’s point of view) Induction (children are given reasons for behaving in a positive way)

17 Madsen and Shapiro Prosocial behavior and such as cooperation change with age. Children become less cooperative and more competitive as they grow older. Older children are more likely to cooperate in cultures that emphasize group goals (Mexican, Israeli)

18 Madsen’s Game

19 III- Peers, Play, and Development of Social Skills

20 Gender and Play Girls Organized games and role-playing
Verbal Interaction with peers Having conversations with dolls Boys Rough-and tumble play Produce a lot of noise

21 Five Developmental levels of Social Interaction Through Play Parten (1932-33)
1- Solitary Play 2- Onlooker Play (child observes other children) 3- Parallel Play (play alongside each other, but not directly interact) 4- Associative Play (share materials and interact, but don’t coordinate activities) 5- Cooperative Play (engage in a single activity together such as building blocks)

22 Make-Belief Play Imaginary Companions
They help children deal with fears , provide companionship during periods of loneliness, and provide reassurance. Research indicates that 65% of young children have imaginary companions. They seem to help children social skills and practice conversations. Children who are adept at imagination may be better at mastering symbolic representation in the real world.

23 Popularity and Social Skills Unpopular Children
Children who are rejected by their peers in early childhood are likely to be rejected in middle childhood as well. They are also more likely to have adjusting problems in adolescence and adulthood. Rejected children may be aggressive or withdrawn. They may be out of sync with their peers’ activities and social interaction.

24 Why Do Some Children Lack the Social Skills that make Others Popular?
Abuse and neglect during the early years Being sheltered Allowed little interaction with peers Being singled out as “different” by peers Simply getting off a bad start when first entering a group

25 Characteristics of Popular Behavior in Kindergarten
Initiate activity Sensitive to the needs of others Don’t force themselves on other children Content to play alongside other children Possess strategies for maintaining friendships Show helpful behavior Are Good at maintaining communication Are good at sharing information Are responsive to suggestions Possess strategies for conflict resolution They are less likely to use aggression

26 VI- Understanding Self and Others Self Concept
Children develop a self-concept, their identity, or their set of beliefs. These are like dispositions- ways of being- that are consistent through time. Their view of the future is quite rosy. Their positive thoughts and feelings about the self are referred to as self-esteem.


28 Self-Concept Young children tend to describe themselves in terms of their physical characteristics, possessions, or activities. The tendency to describe themselves in terms of social connections increases. If a child is called “Bad Buster,” he is going to make a conscious effort to maintain his reputation (fitting into the label) Children tend to imitate their parents.

29 Fitting into the Label

30 Louis Sander (1975) Self-Constancy and Self-Esteem
Challenging the parents’ rules Feeling Guilty Achieving Harmony with parents This experience Louis Sander called A Sense of Self-Constancy The self endures despite temporary disruptions in relationships Example: A child breaks the rules and then restores harmony by saying sorry.

31 Components of Self-esteem
1- Self-awareness Who Am I? 2- Self-worth What Can I Do? 3-Socialization Are They Going to Like Me?

32 How Do You Enhance Self-Esteem?
Praise – Encouragement Give responsibility Allow them to explore their potential freely. Don’t inhibit their creativity. Show them unconditional love (firm but kind) Don’t set very high expectations

33 Setting High Expectations

34 Self and Gender Gender, the sense of being a male or female, is well established by the time children reach the preschool years. Sex is genetically determined and biological Genetics and culture may each set limits on gender roles-what is appropriate for a male or a female to be and do

35 Gender Roles and Expectancies Boys Girls
Are more apt to have traits involving: Competence Independence Forcefulness competitiveness Are viewed as more likely to have traits such as: Warmth Expressiveness Nurturance submissiveness

36 Male Female Are born slightly longer and heavier
As toddlers, boys are more aggressive There are no consistent difference in sociability, self-esteem, analytical skill, or motivation to achieve Newborn girls have slightly more mature skeletons They are a bit more responsive to touch Have a single edge in verbal abilities Actual differences between boys and girls are actually small, and there is considerable overlap between the sexes.

37 The Development of Gender Schemes
Level of Schemes Approximate Age Characteristics of Behavior Gender Identity 2 to 5 years Children can label people as boys or girls; are confused about the meaning of gender; believe that gender changes by changing appearance Gender Constancy 5 to 7 Years Can understand that gender is constant and stable; boys grow up to become daddies or men; girls grow up to become mommies or women

38 Different Perspectives on Gender
1- Biological Perspective 2- Psychoanalytic Perspective 3- Social Learning Perspective 4- Cognitive Approaches

39 1- Biological Perspective
Inborn biological factors produce gender differences Androgens (male hormones) Corpus Callosum (the human brain) Sex-Linked Disorders Klinefelter Syndrome (males XXY, XXXY, XXXXY) Superfemal Syndrome (females XXX, XXXX, XXXXX) Supermale Syndrom (in males XYY, XYYY, XYYYY) Turner’s Syndrome (in females XO)


41 2- Psychoanalysis Perspective
Gender development is the result of moving through a series of stages related to biological urges. Phallic Stage Oedipal Complex Identification

42 3- Social Learning Perspective
Children learn gender-related behavior and expectations from their observation of others’ behavior Reward when conforming to the norm Observing gender-related behavior as represented in books, media, and TV

43 4- Cognitive Perspective
Through the use of gender schemas, developed early in life, preschoolers form a lens through which they view the world. They use their increasing cognitive abilities to develop rules about what is appropriate for males and females. Gender schema/gender identity Gender consistency (ages 4-5) Sandra Ben likes to encourage children to be androgynous (A state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes) Is it a good idea?

44 How We Normally Bring Up Boys
Don’t be a cry baby! Don’t be soft. You have to be tough. Don’t be a sissy! Don’t play with dolls. How does that affect boys in their relationship with girls when they grow up? Are there any drawbacks to this upbringing?

45 Yes They Try Not to Get in Touch with Their Feminine Side
They suppress their feelings They avoid being nurturing They avoid showing warmth and affection They become poor listeners Getting angry for them is easier than saying, “I am hurt.” They get angry and fall into the pattern of abuse

46 Culture and the Self In Western cultures we say,
“the squeaky wheel gets the grease.” Indicating that one should seek attention of others by standing out and making one’s needs known. The Asian perspective says, “the nail that stands out gets the pounding.” Indicating that individuals should refrain from making themselves distinctive.

47 Asian Societies Collective Orientation
Asian Societies tend to have collective orientation, promoting the notion of interdependence. People in these cultures tend to see themselves as parts of a larger social network in which they are interconnected with others.

48 Western Societies Individualistic Orientation
Children in Western cultures are more likely to develop an independent view of self, reflecting an individualistic orientation that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual.

49 Social Concepts and Rules
At first, children imitate verbal patterns: A 2-year-old says, “No, no!” as she marks on the wall with crayons. Here, she shows the beginning of self-restraint. In a few months, she should have developed enough self-control to arrest such impulses

50 Morality Piaget Heteronomous Morality is the initial stage of moral development in which rules are seen as invariant and unchangeable. From age 4-7, children play games rigidly, assuming that there is one, and only one way to play. Example: “Daddy invented the game of marbles At this stage, children do not take intention into account. They believe in immanent justice, a notion that broken rules earn immediate punishment.

51 Hetronomous morality is replaced by 2 later stages of morality
1- Incipient cooperation Stage lasts from 7 to 10. Children’s games become more clearly social. Children play according to the formal rules of the game. 2- Autonomous cooperation stage begins about age 10. Children become fully aware that formal game rules can be modified if the people who play them agree.

52 V- Family Dynamics Parenting Styles
1- Authoritative Parents 2- Authoritarian Parents 3- Permissive Parents 4- Indifferent Parents

53 Parenting Styles

54 Permissive Parents

55 Authoritarian parent

56 Effects of Different Parenting Styles
U T O R I N Tend to produce children who are: Withdrawn Fearful Dependent Moody Unassertive Irritable

57 Effects of Different Parenting Styles
M S I V Tend to produce children who are: Rebellious Aggressive Self-indulgent Socially inept Creative Outgoing

58 Effects of Different Parenting Styles
U T H O R I V E Tend to produce children who are : Self-reliant Self-controlled Socially competent With high self-esteem Do better in school

59 Effects of Different Parenting Styles
They produce children who are: The child feels free to give rein to the most destructive impulses

60 Child Abuse 1- Physical Abuse 2- Psychological Abuse


62 Forms of Psychological Abuse
1- Rejection 2- Denial of Emotional Responsiveness 3- Degradation 4- Terrorization 5- Isolation 6- Exploitation

63 Effects of Child Abuse Damaged self-esteem Isolation
Psychological problems Aggression Lack of trust Fear of exploitation School-related problems Suicide Depression Following the same pattern

64 Explanation of Abuse Psychiatric Explanations
Sociological Explanations Situational Explanations

65 Discipline and Self-Regulation

66 Discipline Rules Following Through Consequences

67 Mild Social Disapproval
1- look at child 2- move close to child 3- serious facial expression 4- Brief negative verbalization about the behavior 5- calm and serious voice 6- nonverbal gesture consistent with disapproval 7-Immediate delivery

68 10 Things to Do Instead of Spanking
1- Ignore 2- Suspend privileges 3- Logical consequences 4- Rearrange space or place 5- Redirect behavior 6- Grandma’s rule 7- Fines 8- Work detail 9- Model 10-Time out

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