2Children Learn What They Live If a child lives with criticism,He learns to condemn.If a child lives with hostility,He learns to fight.If a child lives with ridicule,He learns to be shy.If a child lives with shame,He lives to feel guilty.If a child lives with tolerance,He learns to be patient
3If a child lives with encouragement, He learns confidence.If a child lives with praise,He learns to appreciate.If a child lives with fairness,He lives justice.If a child lives with security,He learns to have faith.If a child lives with approval,He learns to like himself.
4The Preschool Years Sociocultural and Personality Development Developmental Issues and Coping PatternsAggression and Personal BehaviorPeers Play and Development of Social SkillsUnderstanding Self and OthersFamily Dynamics
5I- Developmental Issues and Coping Patterns Children Ages 2-6 must learn to manage a wide range of feelings and emotions:Positive Feelings Negative FeelingsJoy AngerAffection FearPride AnxietyJealousyFrustrationPain
6What are the Causes of Fear and Anxiety? Fear is a response to a specific situation.A child may fear the dark or the sound of thunder.Anxiety is a generalized emotional state.A child may experience regular and continuous feelings of unease, often without knowing why.What are the Causes of Fear and Anxiety?
7How Can We Help Children Cope with Fear and Anxiety? Modeling by parentsReduce unnecessary stressProfessional help (systematic desensitization)Participant modeling
8How Do Children Cope with Fear & Anxiety? Defense Mechanisms Identification ProjectionDenial Reaction FormationDisplacement RegressionRationalization RepressionWithdrawal
9Emotion Regulation Claire Kopp (1989) Dealing with emotions in a socially acceptable waysWestern societies expect children to inhibit the display of some emotions such as:anger and distressaffection and joysensuality and sexual curiosity
10Developmental Conflicts (Autonomy vs. Shame) (Initiative vs. Guilt) ComplianceAutonomyMastery and CompetenceGuiltShame
11ShameAssociated with the desire to undo aspects of the selfShame leads the feeling of helplessnessGuiltInvolves the desire to undo certain behaviors.It is distinct from the self.It shouldn’t affect the person’s core identityGuilt may lead to the feeling of remorse.
12Erik Erikson Resolving the Conflicts Autonomy-vs.-ShameEarly Part of Preschool Years(18 months – 3 years)Children either become more independent and autonomous if their parents encourage exploration and freedom.They can experience shame and self-doubt if they are restricted and overprotected.
13Erik Erikson Resolving the Conflicts Initiative- vs.-Guilt(age 3-age 6)Children view of themselves undergoes major change as they face conflicts between the desire to act independently of their parents and the guilt that comes from the unintended consequences of their actions.Parents who react positively can help their children avoid experiencing guilt.
14II- Aggression and Prosocial Behavior Hostile Aggression is behavior that is intended to harm another personInstrumental Aggression is behavior that is not intended to harm, but instead is incidental to gaining something from another personAssertiveness refers to standing up and defending one’s rights
15Causes for Aggression Frustration-Aggression-Hypothesis (Discredited) PunishmentModeling and Aggression
16Prosocial Behavior Reward and Punishment Role Playing (acting out roles to see things from the other person’s point of view)Induction (children are given reasons for behaving in a positive way)
17Madsen and ShapiroProsocial behavior and such as cooperation change with age.Children become less cooperative and more competitive as they grow older.Older children are more likely to cooperate in cultures that emphasize group goals (Mexican, Israeli)
19III- Peers, Play, and Development of Social Skills
20Gender and Play Girls Organized games and role-playing Verbal Interaction with peersHaving conversations with dollsBoysRough-and tumble playProduce a lot of noise
21Five Developmental levels of Social Interaction Through Play Parten (1932-33) 1- Solitary Play2- Onlooker Play (child observes other children)3- Parallel Play (play alongside each other, but not directly interact)4- Associative Play (share materials and interact, but don’t coordinate activities)5- Cooperative Play (engage in a single activity together such as building blocks)
22Make-Belief Play Imaginary Companions They help children deal with fears , provide companionship during periods of loneliness, and provide reassurance.Research indicates that 65% of young children have imaginary companions.They seem to help children social skills and practice conversations.Children who are adept at imagination may be better at mastering symbolic representation in the real world.
23Popularity and Social Skills Unpopular Children Children who are rejected by their peers in early childhood are likely to be rejected in middle childhood as well.They are also more likely to have adjusting problems in adolescence and adulthood.Rejected children may be aggressive or withdrawn.They may be out of sync with their peers’ activities and social interaction.
24Why Do Some Children Lack the Social Skills that make Others Popular? Abuse and neglect during the early yearsBeing shelteredAllowed little interaction with peersBeing singled out as “different” by peersSimply getting off a bad start when first entering a group
25Characteristics of Popular Behavior in Kindergarten Initiate activitySensitive to the needs of othersDon’t force themselves on other childrenContent to play alongside other childrenPossess strategies for maintaining friendshipsShow helpful behaviorAre Good at maintaining communicationAre good at sharing informationAre responsive to suggestionsPossess strategies for conflict resolutionThey are less likely to use aggression
26VI- Understanding Self and Others Self Concept Children develop a self-concept, their identity, or their set of beliefs.These are like dispositions- ways of being- that are consistent through time.Their view of the future is quite rosy.Their positive thoughts and feelings about the self are referred to as self-esteem.
28Self-ConceptYoung children tend to describe themselves in terms of their physical characteristics, possessions, or activities.The tendency to describe themselves in terms of social connections increases.If a child is called “Bad Buster,” he is going to make a conscious effort to maintain his reputation (fitting into the label)Children tend to imitate their parents.
30Louis Sander (1975) Self-Constancy and Self-Esteem Challenging the parents’ rulesFeeling GuiltyAchieving Harmony with parentsThis experience Louis Sander calledA Sense of Self-ConstancyThe self endures despite temporary disruptions in relationshipsExample: A child breaks the rules and then restores harmony by saying sorry.
31Components of Self-esteem 1- Self-awarenessWho Am I?2- Self-worthWhat Can I Do?3-SocializationAre They Going to Like Me?
32How Do You Enhance Self-Esteem? Praise – EncouragementGive responsibilityAllow them to explore their potential freely. Don’t inhibit their creativity.Show them unconditional love (firm but kind)Don’t set very high expectations
34Self and GenderGender, the sense of being a male or female, is well established by the time children reach the preschool years.Sex is genetically determined and biologicalGenetics and culture may each set limits on gender roles-what is appropriate for a male or a female to be and do
35Gender Roles and Expectancies Boys Girls Are more apt to have traits involving:CompetenceIndependenceForcefulnesscompetitivenessAre viewed as more likely to have traits such as:WarmthExpressivenessNurturancesubmissiveness
36Male Female Are born slightly longer and heavier As toddlers, boys are more aggressiveThere are no consistent difference in sociability, self-esteem, analytical skill, or motivation to achieveNewborn girls have slightly more mature skeletonsThey are a bit more responsive to touchHave a single edge in verbal abilitiesActual differences between boys and girls are actually small, and there is considerable overlap between the sexes.
37The Development of Gender Schemes Level of SchemesApproximateAgeCharacteristics of BehaviorGender Identity2 to 5 yearsChildren can label people as boys or girls; are confused about the meaning of gender; believe that gender changes by changing appearanceGender Constancy5 to 7 YearsCan understand that gender is constant and stable; boys grow up to become daddies or men; girls grow up to become mommies or women
38Different Perspectives on Gender 1- Biological Perspective2- Psychoanalytic Perspective3- Social Learning Perspective4- Cognitive Approaches
391- Biological Perspective Inborn biological factors produce gender differencesAndrogens (male hormones)Corpus Callosum (the human brain)Sex-Linked DisordersKlinefelter Syndrome (males XXY, XXXY, XXXXY)Superfemal Syndrome (females XXX, XXXX, XXXXX)Supermale Syndrom (in males XYY, XYYY, XYYYY)Turner’s Syndrome (in females XO)
412- Psychoanalysis Perspective Gender development is the result of moving through a series of stages related to biological urges.Phallic StageOedipal ComplexIdentification
423- Social Learning Perspective Children learn gender-related behavior and expectations from their observation of others’ behaviorReward when conforming to the normObserving gender-related behavior as represented in books, media, and TV
434- Cognitive Perspective Through the use of gender schemas, developed early in life, preschoolers form a lens through which they view the world. They use their increasing cognitive abilities to develop rules about what is appropriate for males and females.Gender schema/gender identityGender consistency (ages 4-5)Sandra Ben likes to encourage children to be androgynous (A state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes)Is it a good idea?
44How We Normally Bring Up Boys Don’t be a cry baby!Don’t be soft. You have to be tough.Don’t be a sissy!Don’t play with dolls.How does that affect boys in their relationship with girls when they grow up?Are there any drawbacks to this upbringing?
45Yes They Try Not to Get in Touch with Their Feminine Side They suppress their feelingsThey avoid being nurturingThey avoid showing warmth and affectionThey become poor listenersGetting angry for them is easier than saying, “I am hurt.”They get angry and fall into the pattern of abuse
46Culture and the Self In Western cultures we say, “the squeaky wheel gets the grease.”Indicating that one should seek attention of others by standing out and making one’s needs known.The Asian perspective says,“the nail that stands out gets the pounding.”Indicating that individuals should refrain from making themselves distinctive.
47Asian Societies Collective Orientation Asian Societies tend to have collective orientation, promoting the notion of interdependence.People in these cultures tend to see themselves as parts of a larger social network in which they are interconnected with others.
48Western Societies Individualistic Orientation Children in Western cultures are more likely to develop an independent view of self, reflecting an individualistic orientation that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual.
49Social Concepts and Rules At first, children imitate verbal patterns: A 2-year-old says, “No, no!” as she marks on the wall with crayons.Here, she shows the beginning of self-restraint.In a few months, she should have developed enough self-control to arrest such impulses
50Morality PiagetHeteronomous Morality is the initial stage of moral development in which rules are seen as invariant and unchangeable.From age 4-7, children play games rigidly, assuming that there is one, and only one way to play.Example: “Daddy invented the game of marblesAt this stage, children do not take intention into account. They believe in immanent justice, a notion that broken rules earn immediate punishment.
51Hetronomous morality is replaced by 2 later stages of morality 1- Incipient cooperation Stage lasts from 7 to 10. Children’s games become more clearly social. Children play according to the formal rules of the game.2- Autonomous cooperation stage begins about age 10. Children become fully aware that formal game rules can be modified if the people who play them agree.
67Mild Social Disapproval 1- look at child2- move close to child3- serious facial expression4- Brief negative verbalization about the behavior5- calm and serious voice6- nonverbal gesture consistent with disapproval7-Immediate delivery
6810 Things to Do Instead of Spanking 1- Ignore2- Suspend privileges3- Logical consequences4- Rearrange space or place5- Redirect behavior6- Grandma’s rule7- Fines8- Work detail9- Model10-Time out