24 non-subjective relationships relationship based on a positive feelingrelationship based on reciprocity and trustrelationship based on mutual awareness and understanding
25 Friendship Formation Establishing common-ground activity GOTTMANEstablishing common-ground activityGreater communication clarityMore successful at exchanging informationMore skillful at conflict resolutionMore self-disclosure
26 Friendships of Very Young Children Young children aren’t able to articulate their ideas about friendshipDepth of intimacy & strategies for negotiating conflict improve with ageNonetheless, even toddlers interact differently with friends than with non-friends
27 Friendships of Very Young Children spend more time with friendsattempt reconciliation more often with friendsquarrel more with friendsare more forgiving of friendsFriends act as a support in times of change
28 Friendships of Very Young Children Loss of friends is associated with:decline in social playdistress and anxietyEarly friendships can be stablemore than 50% of preschoolers have reciprocal friendshipsmore than 60% of these friendships are stable over 6 months
31 Rejected-Aggressive Children Tend to misinterpret innocent behaviors of others as hostilePoor social problem solversShow severe behavioral problems
32 Does being Aggressive mean being Rejected? Many aggressive children tend to form their own friendship networksMany aggressive children have “best friends”Networks and friendships are composed of other aggressive children
33 Rejected-Withdrawn Children Shy, passive, socially awkward.Have negative expectations of how others will treat them.At risk of being victimized by bullies.
34 Rejected children (aggressive and withdrawn) have more difficulty than other children finding constructive solutions to difficult social situations.Rejected children suggest fewer and more hostile strategies than do their more popular peers.
35 Neglected Children Socially uninvolved children Are they at risk? usually well-adaptednot particularly unhappy or lonelynot aggressive or hostileenjoy solitary activities
36 Is there a connection between being neglected and rejected? It may be that neglected children are children who were rejectedrejection withdrawalIt may be that neglected children will end up being rejectedwithdrawal rejection
37 Controversial Children hostile and disruptiveBUT ALSOengage in pro-social behaviorsappear happy and well-adjusted
38 Popular Children Friendly, helpful, considerate How do they get to be popular?Make attempts at entering groupInitially go alongDon’t ask too many questionsDon’t try to change group’s agenda
39 Stability of Sociometric Status In the short term, popular & rejected are more stable than neglected or controversialIn the long term, sociometric status is relatively unstable except for rejected children
41 PopularityBased on how many peers nominate a child as someone with whom they like to play or work.There is only a partial overlap between popularity and friendship.
42 POPULARITY: involves gaining acceptance among peers FRIENDSHIP: involves forming a stable & intimate relationship with a peer
43 Parker & Asher (1993) Low accepted children (LA) High accepted children (HA)Do LA children they have friends?What is the quality of their friendships?
44 Parker & Asher (1993) HA more likely to have a best friend than LA not all HA have a best friendmany LA have a best friendbest friendships of LA are more problematic than those of HAregardless of status, children without a best friend are more lonely than children with a best friend
45 Popularity & Friendship contribute to children’s well-being Popularity and Peer Acceptanceserve as a context in which children develop leadership skills, assertiveness, & conflict resolution strategiesClose Friendshipsprovide a safe context for self-explorationmeet child’s needs for intimacy and social support
46 Consequences of Close Friendships School performance/adjustmentSocial & emotional support
47 How can parents and teachers help children develop the skills for creating and maintaining close friendships?