15Level 2 Friendship (5-9 yrs) Concepts of Friendshipa friend is someone who helps melacks mutuality, lacks reciprocity
16Level 3 Friendship (7-12 yrs) Social Perspective Takingunderstands that reciprocal subjective evaluations take place
17Level 3 Friendship (7-12 yrs) Intimacy Functionshared experience through joint reflection on similar experiences
18Level 3 Friendship (7-12 yrs) Autonomy Functionnegotiation through cooperative or reciprocal strategies designed to protect the subjective interests of the self
19Level 3 Friendship (7-12 yrs) Concepts of Friendshiptrust, cooperationreciprocal interestno sense of an enduring relationship
20Level 4 Friendship (10-15+) Social Perspective Taking can assume a third party perspective
21Level 4 Friendship (10-15+) Intimacy Function shared experience through collaborative empathic reflective processes
22Level 4 Friendship (10-15+) Autonomy Function negotiation through collaborative strategies oriented towards integrating the interests of the self and the interests of the other person
23Level 4 Friendship (10-15+) Concepts of Friendship mutual understandingmutual concernpossessiveness
24non-subjective relationships relationship based on a positive feelingrelationship based on reciprocity and trustrelationship based on mutual awareness and understanding
25Friendship Formation Establishing common-ground activity GOTTMANEstablishing common-ground activityGreater communication clarityMore successful at exchanging informationMore skillful at conflict resolutionMore self-disclosure
26Friendships of Very Young Children Young children aren’t able to articulate their ideas about friendshipDepth of intimacy & strategies for negotiating conflict improve with ageNonetheless, even toddlers interact differently with friends than with non-friends
27Friendships of Very Young Children spend more time with friendsattempt reconciliation more often with friendsquarrel more with friendsare more forgiving of friendsFriends act as a support in times of change
28Friendships of Very Young Children Loss of friends is associated with:decline in social playdistress and anxietyEarly friendships can be stablemore than 50% of preschoolers have reciprocal friendshipsmore than 60% of these friendships are stable over 6 months
31Rejected-Aggressive Children Tend to misinterpret innocent behaviors of others as hostilePoor social problem solversShow severe behavioral problems
32Does being Aggressive mean being Rejected? Many aggressive children tend to form their own friendship networksMany aggressive children have “best friends”Networks and friendships are composed of other aggressive children
33Rejected-Withdrawn Children Shy, passive, socially awkward.Have negative expectations of how others will treat them.At risk of being victimized by bullies.
34Rejected children (aggressive and withdrawn) have more difficulty than other children finding constructive solutions to difficult social situations.Rejected children suggest fewer and more hostile strategies than do their more popular peers.
35Neglected Children Socially uninvolved children Are they at risk? usually well-adaptednot particularly unhappy or lonelynot aggressive or hostileenjoy solitary activities
36Is there a connection between being neglected and rejected? It may be that neglected children are children who were rejectedrejection withdrawalIt may be that neglected children will end up being rejectedwithdrawal rejection
37Controversial Children hostile and disruptiveBUT ALSOengage in pro-social behaviorsappear happy and well-adjusted
38Popular Children Friendly, helpful, considerate How do they get to be popular?Make attempts at entering groupInitially go alongDon’t ask too many questionsDon’t try to change group’s agenda
39Stability of Sociometric Status In the short term, popular & rejected are more stable than neglected or controversialIn the long term, sociometric status is relatively unstable except for rejected children
41PopularityBased on how many peers nominate a child as someone with whom they like to play or work.There is only a partial overlap between popularity and friendship.
42POPULARITY: involves gaining acceptance among peers FRIENDSHIP: involves forming a stable & intimate relationship with a peer
43Parker & Asher (1993) Low accepted children (LA) High accepted children (HA)Do LA children they have friends?What is the quality of their friendships?
44Parker & Asher (1993) HA more likely to have a best friend than LA not all HA have a best friendmany LA have a best friendbest friendships of LA are more problematic than those of HAregardless of status, children without a best friend are more lonely than children with a best friend
45Popularity & Friendship contribute to children’s well-being Popularity and Peer Acceptanceserve as a context in which children develop leadership skills, assertiveness, & conflict resolution strategiesClose Friendshipsprovide a safe context for self-explorationmeet child’s needs for intimacy and social support
46Consequences of Close Friendships School performance/adjustmentSocial & emotional support
47How can parents and teachers help children develop the skills for creating and maintaining close friendships?