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1 Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 1.1: The Language of Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 1.2: Basic Physiological Processes Lesson 1.3:

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Presentation on theme: "1 Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 1.1: The Language of Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 1.2: Basic Physiological Processes Lesson 1.3:"— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 1.1: The Language of Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 1.2: Basic Physiological Processes Lesson 1.3: How Forces Affect the Body Lesson 1.4: Understanding Science

3 Lesson 1.1 The Language of Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1: Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. introducing anatomy and physiology describing the human body the metric system The Language of Anatomy and Physiology

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. human anatomy –identify the parts of the human body –gross human anatomy –microscopic human anatomy human physiology –how the parts of the human body function Introducing Anatomy and Physiology

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. anatomical position planes –sagittal –frontal –transverse Describing the Human Body

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Directional Terms

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. True or False? 1. The frontal plane divides the body into left and right halves. 2. Proximal means closer to the trunk. 3. Lateral means away from the midline of the body. Review and Assessment

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. dorsal (posterior) cavities –cranial –spinal ventral (anterior) cavities –thoracic –abdominopelvic –abdominal –pelvic Body Cavities

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Body Cavities

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. meter–measures length kilogram–measures mass second–measures time Kelvin–measures temperature The Metric System

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fill in the blanks with: diaphragm, kilogram, or thoracic. 1. The heart is located in the _______________ cavity. 2. The _______________ separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. 3. The metric base unit of mass is the _______________. Review and Assessment

13 Lesson 1.2 Basic Physiological Processes Chapter 1: Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. structural and functional organization of the body homeostasis metabolism Basic Physiological Processes

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. atoms molecules cells tissues organs organ systems Structural Organization of the Body

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Human Organ Systems

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fill in the blanks with: cardiovascular, skeletal, or urinary. 1. The _______________ system supports the body. 2. The _______________ system eliminates waste. 3. The _______________ system transports oxygen. Review and Assessment

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. control mechanisms maintain a steady internal environment –receptor –control center –effector Homeostasis Rido/Shutterstock.com

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. negative feedback –conditions exceeding a set limit in one direction trigger a negative reaction in the opposite direction positive feedback –conditions cause a reaction to accelerate Homeostasis

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. organ systems have a diminished ability to keep the body’s internal environment within the normal ranges Homeostatic Imbalance

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. anabolism –big molecules made from smaller molecules catabolism –big molecule broken into smaller molecules metabolic rate Metabolism

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. True or False? 1. Negative feedback mechanisms increase disruptive forces. 2. Homeostatic control mechanisms maintain a steady internal environment. 3. Anabolism breaks molecules down. Review and Assessment

23 Lesson 1.3 How Forces Affect the Body Chapter 1: Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. basic kinetic concepts forces and injury to the human body How Forces Affect the Body

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. force –push or pull mass and weight pressure –force spread over an area torque –twisting force Basic Kinetic Concepts

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. compression –squeezing force tension –pulling force shear –tearing apart force Forces and Injury to the Human Body

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Directional Force Distribution within the Body

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. types of stress –compressive –tensile –shear Mechanical Stress

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. multiple forces acting at same time bending –off-center force torsion –twisting force Combined Loads

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. acceleration deformation –elastic –plastic The Effects of Force Application

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Match these words with 1–4 below: tension, kinetics, pressure, torsion. 1. analysis of force action 2. twisting force 3. pulling force 4. force spread over an area Review and Assessment

32 Lesson 1.4 Understanding Science Chapter 1: Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. the scientific method developing scientific theories the impact of scientific research Understanding Science

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. creates new knowledge –testable explanations –testable predictions Science

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Step 1: Identifying a Research Question Step 2: Formulating One or More Hypotheses Step 3: Planning the Organization of the Study Step 4: Collecting the Data The Scientific Method

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Step 5: Analyzing and Evaluating the Data with Statistical Tools Step 6: Interpreting and Discussing the Results Step 7: Deriving Conclusions from the Results The Scientific Method (continued)

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. tested through the scientific method accurate explanation of some aspect of the natural world Developing Scientific Theories

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Aristotle –wrote On the Parts of Animals Galen –compiled numerous anatomical reports –first to assert that the brain controls muscles Early Greek and Roman Anatomists

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Leonardo da Vinci –The Vitruvian Man Andreas Vesalius –De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body) William Harvey –one of the first accurate descriptions of human physiology Anatomists in the Renaissance Reed/Shutterstock.com

40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fill in the blanks with: scientific theory, science, or Galen. 1. _______________ creates new knowledge. 2. A(n) _______________ is an accurate explanation of some aspect of the natural world. 3. The early Greek and Roman anatomists were Aristotle and _______________. Review and Assessment


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