2 1 Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 1.1: The Language of Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 1.2: Basic Physiological Processes Lesson 1.3: How Forces Affect the Body Lesson 1.4: Understanding Science
3 The Language of Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1: Foundations of Human Anatomy and PhysiologyLesson 1.1The Language of Anatomy and Physiology
4 The Language of Anatomy and Physiology introducing anatomy and physiologydescribing the human bodythe metric system
5 Introducing Anatomy and Physiology human anatomyidentify the parts of the human bodygross human anatomymicroscopic human anatomyhuman physiologyhow the parts of the human body function
6 Describing the Human Body anatomical positionplanessagittalfrontaltransverse
11 The Metric System meter–measures length kilogram–measures mass second–measures timeKelvin–measures temperature
12 Review and AssessmentFill in the blanks with: diaphragm, kilogram, or thoracic. 1. The heart is located in the _______________ cavity. 2. The _______________ separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. 3. The metric base unit of mass is the _______________.
13 Basic Physiological Processes Chapter 1: Foundations of Human Anatomy and PhysiologyLesson 1.2Basic Physiological Processes
14 Basic Physiological Processes structural and functional organization of the bodyhomeostasismetabolism
15 Structural Organization of the Body atomsmoleculescellstissuesorgansorgan systems
17 Review and AssessmentFill in the blanks with: cardiovascular, skeletal, or urinary. 1. The _______________ system supports the body. 2. The _______________ system eliminates waste. 3. The _______________ system transports oxygen.
18 Homeostasis control mechanisms maintain a steady internal environment receptorcontrol centereffectorRido/Shutterstock.com
19 Homeostasis negative feedback positive feedback conditions exceeding a set limit in one direction trigger a negative reaction in the opposite directionpositive feedbackconditions cause a reaction to accelerate
20 Homeostatic Imbalance organ systems have a diminished ability to keep the body’s internal environment within the normal ranges
21 Metabolism anabolism catabolism metabolic rate big molecules made from smaller moleculescatabolismbig molecule broken into smaller moleculesmetabolic rate
22 Review and AssessmentTrue or False? 1. Negative feedback mechanisms increase disruptive forces. 2. Homeostatic control mechanisms maintain a steady internal environment. 3. Anabolism breaks molecules down.
23 How Forces Affect the Body Chapter 1: Foundations of Human Anatomy and PhysiologyLesson 1.3How Forces Affect the Body
24 How Forces Affect the Body basic kinetic conceptsforces and injury to the human body
25 Basic Kinetic Concepts forcepush or pullmass and weightpressureforce spread over an areatorquetwisting force
26 Forces and Injury to the Human Body compressionsqueezing forcetensionpulling forcesheartearing apart force
28 Mechanical Stresstypes of stresscompressivetensileshear
29 Combined Loads multiple forces acting at same time bending torsion off-center forcetorsiontwisting force
30 The Effects of Force Application accelerationdeformationelasticplastic
31 Review and AssessmentMatch these words with 1–4 below: tension, kinetics, pressure, torsion.1. analysis of force action2. twisting force3. pulling force4. force spread over an area
32 Understanding Science Chapter 1: Foundations of Human Anatomy and PhysiologyLesson 1.4Understanding Science
33 Understanding Science the scientific methoddeveloping scientific theoriesthe impact of scientific research
34 Science creates new knowledge testable explanations testable predictions
35 The Scientific Method Step 1: Identifying a Research Question Step 2: Formulating One or More HypothesesStep 3: Planning the Organization of the StudyStep 4: Collecting the Data
36 The Scientific Method (continued) Step 5: Analyzing and Evaluating the Data with Statistical ToolsStep 6: Interpreting and Discussing the ResultsStep 7: Deriving Conclusions from the Results
37 Developing Scientific Theories tested through the scientific methodaccurate explanation of some aspect of the natural world
38 Early Greek and Roman Anatomists Aristotlewrote On the Parts of AnimalsGalencompiled numerous anatomical reportsfirst to assert that the brain controls muscles
39 Anatomists in the Renaissance Leonardo da VinciThe Vitruvian ManAndreas VesaliusDe Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body)William Harveyone of the first accurate descriptions of human physiologyReed/Shutterstock.com
40 Review and AssessmentFill in the blanks with: scientific theory, science, or Galen. 1. _______________ creates new knowledge. 2. A(n) _______________ is an accurate explanation of some aspect of the natural world. 3. The early Greek and Roman anatomists were Aristotle and _______________.