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Plymouth State University Computer Hardware How to Choose a Multimedia Computer.

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Presentation on theme: "Plymouth State University Computer Hardware How to Choose a Multimedia Computer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plymouth State University Computer Hardware How to Choose a Multimedia Computer

2 Plymouth State University ENIAC - The First Electronic Digital Computer

3 Plymouth State University The Four Functions of a Computer INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT STORAGE INFORMATION DATA

4 Plymouth State University The System Unit Power Supply System Board Hard Drives or CD-ROM Drives Floppy Drive Expansion Card

5 Plymouth State University Directions of Computer Development Miniaturization –Transistors –Integrated circuits Solid state Semiconductor Chip

6 Plymouth State University Integrated Circuit IC, or "chip" Made from Silicon Includes Transistors, Resistors & Capacitors

7 Plymouth State University Steps in Manufacture of a Microchip 1 Make large drawing. Reduce drawing hundreds of times to microscopic size. 2 Duplicate reduced photo many times on sheet.

8 Plymouth State University Etched Silicon Wafer

9 Plymouth State University Future Developments in Processing & Storage Moore’s Law –Gordon Moore predicted the number of transistors on a silicon chip will double every 18 months –It has held up since the 1960s!

10 Plymouth State University The System Unit: The Basics The CPU –Older CPUs processing speeds are in MegaHertz 1 MHz = 1 Million ticks per second –Current CPUs processing speeds are in GigaHertz 1 GHz = 1 Billion ticks per second –The faster a CPU runs, the more power it consumes, and the more heat it generates

11 Plymouth State University Secondary Storage, Primary Storage and the CPU Main Memory (RAM) CPU Secondary Storage (Disk) Load Execute

12 Plymouth State University How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, & Flash Types of memory chips: 1.RAM - Random Access Memory, used to temporarily hold software instructions and data 2.ROM 3.Flash

13 Plymouth State University How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, & Flash Types of memory chips: 1.RAM 2.ROM - Read-Only Memory, which cannot be written on or erased by the computer user. Contains fixed start-up instructions 3.Flash

14 Plymouth State University How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash Types of memory chips: 1.RAM 2.ROM 3.Flash - can be erased and reprogrammed more than once

15 Plymouth State University Bits & Bytes Kilobyte Megabyte Gigabyte Terabyte Petabyte

16 Plymouth State University Binary Coding Schemes ASCII EBCDIC Unicode

17 Plymouth State University Microchips Microprocessors Memory Logic Communications Graphics

18 Plymouth State University Central Processing Unit n Control Unit n Arithmetic/Logic Unit n Registers

19 Plymouth State University CU ALU CPU Registers

20 Plymouth State University Control Unit n Controls step-by-step operation of computer

21 Plymouth State University Arithmetic/Logic Unit n Arithmetic n = 6 n = 4 n Logic n 9 > 6 n 3 < 7 n 5 = 5

22 Plymouth State University Registers Temporary storage locations within the CPU

23 Plymouth State University CPU Operation n Machine Cycle n Time it takes to process one machine instruction n Two parts: Fetch Cycle - Get instruction, decode it, set up Execution Cycle - Carry out the instruction

24 Plymouth State University TOTAL = CU ALU Registers CPU

25 Plymouth State University TOTAL = CU ALU CPU ADD

26 Plymouth State University TOTAL = CU ALU CPU 13 ADD

27 Plymouth State University TOTAL = CU ALU CPU ADD

28 Plymouth State University TOTAL = CU ALU CPU ADD

29 Plymouth State University TOTAL = CU ALU CPU TOTAL Main Memory STORE

30 Plymouth State University Two Types of Storage PRIMARY Storage - Main memory or RAM SECONDARY Storage - Auxiliary Storage (disks, Flash etc.)

31 Plymouth State University Disk Drives Drive A: “Floppy” DRIVE Drive C: Hard Drive (Internal)

32 Plymouth State University Secondary Storage Devices Hard Disks Nonremovable disks –Known as a fixed disk –Capacity up to 1 terabyte + –Consists of inch metallic platters

33 Plymouth State University Hard Disk Drive

34 Plymouth State University Magnetic Disk Uses Direct Access

35 Plymouth State University Magnetic Disk Storage Rotational Delay Seek Time

36 Plymouth State University Disk Heads Hair Dust Magnetic Disk Surface Read/Write Head

37 Plymouth State University Head Crash Read/Write Head Disk Surface

38 Plymouth State University Compact Disk (CD)

39 Plymouth State University Secondary Storage Devices Optical Disks CD – compact disk –about 700 megabytes –CD-ROM –CD-R –CD-RW

40 Plymouth State University Secondary Storage Devices Optical Disks DVD – digital video disk –4.7 – 17 gigabytes –DVD-ROM – read-only –DVD-R – rewritable one time –Reusable types DVD-RW DVD-RAM

41 Plymouth State University Flash Memory Flash memory is nonvolatile

42 Plymouth State University Input and Output n INPUT - We provide the DATA to be processed n OUTPUT - We use the INFORMATION produced

43 Plymouth State University Input & Output Hardware  Input hardware  Translates words, numbers, sounds, and pictures into numbers  Output hardware  Translates numbers back into words, numbers, sounds, and pictures

44 Plymouth State University Some Input Devices Keyboards Pointing devices Mouse Trackball Touch screen Pen input Source data-entry devices Scanner Text (OCR) Voice Video MICR FAX

45 Plymouth State University Input Hardware Keyboards: convert letters, numbers, and characters into electrical signals –English keyboards differ from foreign language keyboards German Keyboard

46 Plymouth State University Input Hardware Webcams and Video-input Cards Webcams –Video cameras attached to a computer to record live moving images then post them to a website in real time –Require special software, usually included with the camera

47 Plymouth State University Input Hardware Camera Phones Digital cameras are now on cell phones –Convenience of being able to take photos, then instantly or message them to someone else

48 Plymouth State University Touch Screen

49 Plymouth State University Input Hardware Source Data-Entry Devices Scanning devices – imaging systems Scanning devices – bar code readers –Magnetic-ink character recognition (MICR) –Optical-mark recognition (OMR) –Optical character recognition (OCR) Scanning devices – fax machines

50 Plymouth State University Check Processing

51 Plymouth State University Source Data-Entry Device

52 Plymouth State University Bar Code

53 Plymouth State University Smart Cards Similar to credit cards Contain a microprocessor

54 Plymouth State University Digital Camera

55 Plymouth State University GPS

56 Plymouth State University Biometrics Fingerprints Retina Scanning Face Recognition

57 Plymouth State University Output Hardware Softcopy –Data that is shown on a display screen or is in audio or voice form; exists electronically –Output that is ephemeral in nature Hardcopy –Printed and film output –Output that is more permanent in nature

58 Plymouth State University Display Screens

59 Plymouth State University Resolution Resolution = TOTAL PIXELS = # dots across by # dots down Example: 1024 X 768

60 Plymouth State University Types of Terminals Dumb Terminals Intelligent Terminals

61 Plymouth State University Specialized Terminals n ATM’s n POS’s

62 Plymouth State University MIDI Music

63 Plymouth State University Output Hardware: Hardcopy Devices Impact printers –Dot-matrix Nonimpact printers –Laser –Ink-jet

64 Plymouth State University Other Types of Output Projectors COM Machine Control Voice House Control Center

65 Plymouth State University Machine Control

66 Plymouth State University Health Matters Repetitive stress injuries –Carpal tunnel syndrome Eyestrain & headaches Back & neck pains Electromagnetic fields Noise

67 Plymouth State University Ergonomics Fitting the job environment to the worker Purpose – make working conditions and equipment safer and more efficient

68 Plymouth State University Ergonomic Considerations Chair Keyboard Height Wrist Rest Monitor Height Lighting Noise

69 Plymouth State University Ergonomic Keyboard

70 Plymouth State University Ergonomics Eye strain Radiation Glare

71 Plymouth State University Ethics Theft Counterfeiting

72 Craig’s List 72Web Expressions


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