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Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences Professor: Nabil Elmjati.

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Presentation on theme: "Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences Professor: Nabil Elmjati."— Presentation transcript:

1 Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences Professor: Nabil Elmjati

2 Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

3 A Computer is an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable program. Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

4 Personal Computer WorkstationsMini ComputersMainframesSuper Computers Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

5 Personal Computer: Also called a micro-computer, it is a small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

6 What about tablets ? Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

7 Workstations : A workstation is a computer intended for individual use that is faster and more capable than a personal computer. It's intended for business or professional use (rather than home or recreational use). Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

8 Mini Computers : A minicomputer is a computer of a size intermediate between a microcomputer and a mainframe. Typically, sold to small and mid-size businesses for general business applications and to large enterprises for department-level operations. Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

9 Mainframes : A mainframe is a high-performance computer used for large-scale computing purposes that require greater availability and security than a smaller-scale machine can offer Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

10 A large number of terminals connected to a mainframe. Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

11 Super Computers : A supercomputer is, a very powerful machine, mainly used for performing tasks involving intense numerical calculations such as weather forecasting, fluid dynamics, nuclear simulations, theoretical astrophysics, and complex scientific computations. Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

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13 1 st Generation: The Vacuum Tubes 2 nd Generation: Transistors 3 rd Generation: Integrated Circuits 4 th Generation: Microprocessor 5 th Generation: Future Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

14 1 st Gen: Vacuum Tubes ( ) Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

15  A Computer using Vaccum Tubes: Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

16  Punch Cards Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

17 Problems with Vaccum Tubes:  Very Expensive.  Produces massive amount of heat.  Needed a large amount of electricity  It was time for something new! Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

18  Watch how punch cards were used to send data to a computer:  N6BP4 N6BP4  Watch the UNIVAC commercial from 1950 by clicking on the link below: JBuks JBuks Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

19 2 nd Gen: Transistors ( ) Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

20 Differences between Transistors and Tubes:  Smaller  Faster.  More Reliable  One Transistor was the equivalent of 40 Vacuum Tubes. Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

21  2 nd Gen Computers still relied on punch cards for inputting Data.  IBM 1401 is an example of a 2 nd Gen Computer. Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

22  Watch the video, below, from 1959 showing characteristics of the IBM 1401  UaHAWVKU UaHAWVKU Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

23 3 rd Gen: Integrated Circuits ( ) A single Chip that contains numerous transistors. Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

24  Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.  Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

25 Computers of this era were the first to offer a keyboard and a screen as input/output devices. Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

26  PDP-8 : Because it was the first computer to successfully make use of integrated circuits, it was much smaller and cheaper compared to other computers available at the same time. When it first entered the minicomputer market, it sold for about $20,000. Five years later, this price was reduced to only $3,000.  Watch a PDP-8 in action in the video below:  Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

27 4 th Gen: The Microprocessor  The microprocessor gave birth to the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand.  In 1975 consumers were finally able to buy their own personal Computer, in the form of Altair Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

28 Altair 8800:  Developed in 1975 by MITS, The Altair 8800 was sold as an electronic hobbyist kit for only $397. The computer was very simple, that it did not even have a keyboard or display. These computers did not even have enough memory to perform any useful tasks. The Altair 8800 had switches on the front panel for input and rows of neon light. Watch the video below to see how an ALTAIR 8800 was operated:  Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

29 Apple II :  Considered to be the pinnacle of home computers, the Apple 2 launched in 1977 and was the first computer to display color graphics. The Apple II was available to consumers for the price of $1300 with 4KB of ram and offered the ability to expand the ram to 48KB ( a first in computer history).  Watch the first Apple II commercial below:  Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

30 1981 and beyond :  In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user.  In 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.  Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use them. Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

31  As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet.  Our PC's, smart phones, laptops, and tablets, that we own today are all considered the product of the 4th generation of computers, since they all use a microprocessor to operate and process the various data. Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

32 5 th Gen: Artificial Intelligence? (Future)  Many believe that what will make the 5th generation stand out is Artificial intelligence(AI).  AI means that a computer will self be sufficient, and be able to think and learn for itself rather than wait for a user to input a set data.  Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences

33  Google's Project Glass:  Professor: Nabil Elmjati IB100 Introduction to computer Sciences


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