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Hardware -Computer Organization. Hardware & Software A computer system consists of A computer system consists of –Hardware: anything you can touch, smell,

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Presentation on theme: "Hardware -Computer Organization. Hardware & Software A computer system consists of A computer system consists of –Hardware: anything you can touch, smell,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hardware -Computer Organization

2 Hardware & Software A computer system consists of A computer system consists of –Hardware: anything you can touch, smell, break, is hardware. Monitor, printer, mouse, RAM, CPU Monitor, printer, mouse, RAM, CPU –Software: programs that tell the computer what to do Word, Excel, IE, Windows XP&Vista, Word, Excel, IE, Windows XP&Vista,

3 Software, data, & processing ? A computer has no insight or intuition A computer has no insight or intuition It must be told what to do by instructions It must be told what to do by instructions A program: a sequence of instructions A program: a sequence of instructions Data: user data and application data Data: user data and application data User data: data entered by a user User data: data entered by a user –The text of a report you entered Application data: supplied by a program Application data: supplied by a program –Initial font, spacing between lines, etc in MS WORD

4 Software, data, & processing ? Processing: Processing: –a computer follows programs in working with data Computer application: Computer application: –a program and its application data Software Software –Programs, in old days –Computer applications, now

5 Universal Machines Different applications make the computer to perform different functions or tasks – virtual machines Different applications make the computer to perform different functions or tasks – virtual machines –MS WORD – typewriter –MS Excel – Calculator –Cell phone sw – Cell phone Without software, a computer would NOT be useful at all Without software, a computer would NOT be useful at all

6 Main Hardware Components Central Processing Unit (CPU) Central Processing Unit (CPU) –Direct all operations in the computer –Synonyms: the brain, processors, microprocessors Main memory or memory Main memory or memory –Holds the data and instructions during processing –Synonyms: Random Access Memory (RAM) Input/output (I/O) devices Input/output (I/O) devices –Allow the CPU to interact with users –Keyboards, monitors, printers, disks, etc. –Sensors – interact with the environment

7 Main components in a machine? Memory CPU System Unit Disk InputOutput Network

8 How are components connected? Integrated circuits – chips Integrated circuits – chips –CPU, memory, etc Buses Buses –Electrical passage between chips Motherboard Motherboard –Circuit board hosting all the components Cards/Adapters/Controllers: Cards/Adapters/Controllers: –Circuit boards for I/O devices –Network card, video card, modem, etc.

9 How are components connected? CPURAMDiskKeyboardMonitor Bus

10 What does the “brain” look like?

11 What the components look like?

12 Types of Computers Hardware Classifications Hardware Classifications –Microcomputers - their processor on a single chip. Commonly used by individuals –Minicomputers - the size of a file cabinet or desk. Used in small organizations –Mainframe Computers - large systems that fill a room. process large amounts of data –Super Computers - perform very complex numerical calculations at high speed. used for the solution of scientific (and military) problems

13 Microcomputers Laptop or notebook – portable, use battery, touchpad, stick, keyboard and flat panel display. Laptop or notebook – portable, use battery, touchpad, stick, keyboard and flat panel display. Tablet computer -- swivel screen, touch screen, stylus, keyboard. Tablet computer -- swivel screen, touch screen, stylus, keyboard. Sub-notebook - a small light notebook - 7" or smaller display, weigh 2 pounds or less. Sub-notebook - a small light notebook - 7" or smaller display, weigh 2 pounds or less. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) - a specialized computer - touch screen for entering data, and built in applications -- calendar, address book, photo viewer, calculator, etc. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) - a specialized computer - touch screen for entering data, and built in applications -- calendar, address book, photo viewer, calculator, etc. Smartphones – PDA with phone capability Smartphones – PDA with phone capability

14 Types of Computers Functional Classifications Functional Classifications –Server - primary task is to store and retrieve large quantities of data often of a specific type, e.g., database server, a Web server. or a mail server. –Workstation - running a variant of UNIX designed to be used by only one person. used in medical research, digital imaging, and engineering. –Embedded computer systems - run single programs and are embedded in a larger system, such as automobiles, microwave ovens, electric toothbrushes, DVD players. This classification accounts for more than 90% of the CPUs in use today. –Portable Data Entry Terminals - handheld devices used to record data

15 Summary Hardware components Hardware components –CPU, memory, I/O devices –Connected together by buses –Circuits combined in chips –Chips placed on cards/board Software and Information Software and Information –Instructions: tell the computer what to do –Application data: used by programs –User data: processed by programs

16 Terminology Hardware Hardware Software Software CPU CPU Main memory Main memory Storage Storage I/O devices I/O devices Bus Bus Chip and casing Chip and casing Card Card Expansion slots Expansion slots Instructions Instructions Programs Programs Computer applications Computer applications Processing Processing Data Data


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