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A History of Computing An Adventure in Human Inventiveness.

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1 A History of Computing An Adventure in Human Inventiveness




5 “Napier’s Bones” were moveable rods that allowed the operator to multiply, divide, and calculate square and cube roots.


7 Self taught mathematician who developed Boolean algebra, the basis of the digital computer circuit. George Boole 1815 - 1864






13 The ENIAC used 18,000 vacuum tubes and required a pair of these tubes joined in a particular manner to hold in memory a single bit of data.


15 Generations of Computers Early 50s First Generation Mid 1950s Second Generation Early 1960sThird Generation 1970- 1990sFourth Generation 1990s-presentFifth Generation

16 Early 50s First Generation Vacuum tubes Pioneering work on magnetic storage Data held on tapes and drums in serial manner

17 Mid 1950s Second Generation Transistors replaced vacuum tubes Conducted electricity more efficiently Consumed less energy Needed less space Generated less heat Didn’t burn out

18 Invention of IBM 360 in 1964 began Third Generation Integrated circuits on a chip Magnetic disks replaced magnetic tape as storage device Video display/keyboard replaced punched card input Large-scale integration (LSI) put hundreds of thousands of transistors on a silicon chip LSI led to computers in cameras, TVs and cars

19 1442N1 Card reader/ punch S/360 CPU, model 30(?) 2260 Display terminal 1403N1 Impact printer 2305 Drum storage 2401 Tape storage 2803 Tape control unit 2321 Data cell storage LCS Large core storage device 1443 Impact printer 2821 Control unit 2311 Disk storage 2841 DASD control unit 1052 Console typewriter 1072 Console station IBM SYSTEM/360

20 1970-1990s Fourth Generation 1970 – Intel 4004 Microprocessor used in calculators 1974 – Intel 8080 capable of running a CPU 1977 – Apple II and VisiCalc 1981 – IBM PC

21 1990s-2000s Fifth Generation Incredibly fast chips Artificial Intelligence Voice synthesizers Wireless networks Parallel processing Flat panel displays Touch screens & handwriting recognition

22 History of Computers in Education Before the Microcomputer –Programmed Instruction –Teaching Machines –Computer Assisted Instruction The time of the Microcomputer –Computer Interest Groups (CIGs) –Conferences –Organizations/Magazines/Journals

23 B.F. Skinner developed a Teaching Machine to facilitate the use of Programmed Instruction, the forerunner of computer tutorials used today

24 Programming and Literacy 1980s movement to teach programming –BASIC –Logo and Constructivism –Seymour Papert: Mindstorms Computer Literacy –Ability to understand and use computers –Computer Literacy courses for future teachers

25 Networking and the Internet Connecting computers and peripherals to a communication system U.S. Dept of Defense created Internet MOSAIC navigator tool Graphical User Interfaces Distance Education

26 Handheld Computing Devices Palm Pilot and Blackberry - store and retrieve information - access files on a remote computer - download data to upload later - uses unique strokes / keyboard to input data Cell phone + digital camera + web browser

27 What Will They Think of Next? Introduce yourself to a partner Talk about the technology you use Dream up a cool new techno device

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