Presentation on theme: "Ch.10 Language and Society and some related issues 【本著作除另有註明外，採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 －非商業性－相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0."— Presentation transcript:
Ch.10 Language and Society and some related issues 【本著作除另有註明外，採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 －非商業性－相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 3.0 License of “BY-NC-SA”. 授課老師：蘇以文 I-wen Su
Accent In linguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation. differ in quality of voice, pronunciation of vowels and consonants, stress, and prosody Although grammar, semantics, vocabulary, and other language characteristics often vary concurrently with accent, the word 'accent' refers specifically to the differences in pronunciation, whereas the word 'dialect' encompasses the broader set of linguistic differences. Often 'accent' is a subset of 'dialect’ An accent may identify the locality in which its speakers reside (a geographical or regional accent), the socio-economic status of its speakers, their ethnicity, their caste or social class, their first language, and so on.
English as L1 or L2 Currently, there are approximately 75 territories where English is spoken either as a first language (L1) or as an unofficial or institutionalized second language (L2) in fields such as government, law and education. It is difficult to establish the total number of Englishes in the world, as new varieties of English are constantly being developed and discovered.
World Englishes: The use of English as an international and intra-national language Refers to the emergence of localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties developed in nations colonized by Great Britain or influenced by the United States. Varieties of English used in diverse sociolinguistic contexts globally, and how sociolinguistic histories, multicultural backgrounds and contexts of function influence the use of colonial English The issue of World Englishes was first raised in 1978 to examine concepts of regional Englishes globally pragmatic factors considered: appropriateness, comprehensibility and interpretability International Committee of the Study of World Englishes (ICWE) was formed in 1988, at a TESOL conference in Honolulu, Hawaii
Singlish I not stupid I Not Stupid (Chinese: 小孩不笨 xiao3hai2 bu2 ben4) is a Singaporean comedy film about the lives, struggles, and adventures of three Primary 6 pupils who are placed in the academically inferior EM3 stream. Its satirical criticism of the Singaporean education system and social attitudes in Singapore sparked public discussions and parliamentary debates that led to reforms in the education system. Part 1 (Singlish) (1:20) breakfast scene
Language Policy (in a multi-lingual society) I not stupid too I Not Stupid Too (Chinese: 小孩不笨 2; xiao3hai2 bu2 ben4 II) is a 2006 Singaporean film and the sequel to the 2002 film, I Not Stupid. A satirical comedy, I Not Stupid Too portrays the lives, struggles and adventures of three Singaporean youths—15-year-old Tom, his 8-year-old brother Jerry and their 15-year-old friend Chengcai—who have a strained relationship with their parents. The film explores the issue of poor parent-child communication. Part 1 (14:38) (learning English/Chinese and social status; education in Singapore )
Language Policy Designed by a nation to favor or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages. Language Policy is what a government does officially through legislation, court decisions or to determine how languages are used, cultivate language skills needed to meet national priorities or to establish the rights of individuals or groups to use and maintain languages Historically often used to promote one official language at the expense of others Now designed to protect and promote regional and ethnic languages whose viability is threatened
Chinese as a Second/Foreign Language In 2005, 117,660 non-native speakers took the Chinese Proficiency Test, an increase of 26.52% from 2004. From 2000 to 2004, the number of students in England, Wales and Northern Ireland taking Advanced Level exams in Chinese increased by 57%. The USC U.S.-China Institute cited a report that 51,582 students were studying the language in US colleges and universities. While far behind the more than 800,000 students who study Spanish, the number is more than three times higher than in 1986. An estimated 40 million people are now studying Chinese as a second language around the world
Code Switching I not stupid too Part 3 (13:52) (Code switching of the principal [English and Mandarin], and of the neighbor [Hokkien, Mandarin and English]; education in Singapore)
Code switching The concurrent use of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation, in a manner consistent with the syntax and phonology of each variety In 1940s and 1950s, code-switching was considered a kind of sub-standard language usage. Since 1980s, code-switching is deemed as a kind of normal, natural product of bilingual and multilingual language use. Code mixing is a term for a related concept, used Either as synonymous term for code-switching, Or as a term denoting the formal linguistic properties of said language-contact phenomena, whereas code-switching is to denote the actual, spoken usages by people who are multilingual
Social motivation for code switching Code-switching sometimes indexes social-group membership in bilingual and multilingual communities. Some sociolinguists describe the relationships between code- switching behaviors and class, ethnicity, and other social Conversational analyst Peter Auer suggests that code switching does not simply reflect social situations, but that it is a means to create social situations
Language shift language transfer/ language replacement The progressive process whereby a speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language The data is used to measure the use of a given language in the lifetime of a person, or most often across generations within a linguistic community. The process whereby a community of speakers of one language becomes bilingual in another language, and gradually shifts to the second language is called assimilation. When a linguistic community ceases to use their original language, language death is said to occur
Education Movie: Three Idiots Plot Farhan Qureshi and Raju Rastogi want to re-unite with their fellow collegian, Rancho, after faking a stroke abroad an Air India plane, and excusing himself from his wife - trouser less - respectively. Enroute, they encounter another student, Chatur Ramalingam, now a successful businessman, who reminds them of a bet they had undertaken 10 years ago. The trio, while recollecting hilarious antics, including their run-ins with the Dean of Delhi's Imperial College of Engineering, Viru Sahastrabudhe, race to locate Rancho, at his last known address - little knowing the secret that was kept from them all this time.
Three Idiots Part 1 (09:00) Part 3 (09:00) (the president's orientation speech; the definition of machine) Part 4 (9:11) on school and getting grades Part 14 (9:00) father and son (Joshi) on career change (to be a photographer); Sherman Joshi Interview
My Fair Lady PLOT Gloriously witty adaptation of the Broadway musical about Professor Henry Higgins, who takes a bet from Colonel Pickering that he can transform unrefined, dirty Cockney flower girl Eliza Doolittle into a lady, and fool everyone into thinking she really is one, too! He does, and thus young aristocrat Freddy Eynsford-Hill falls madly in love with her. But when Higgins takes all the credit and forgets to acknowledge her efforts, Eliza angrily leaves him for Freddy, and suddenly Higgins realizes he's grown accustomed to her face and can't really live without it. My Fair Lady- Audrey Hepburn (7:40) (with Japanese subtitle) Introducing Eliza Doolittle
Language and Social Status Why can't the English (Standard English vs. the Cockney dialect) (2:32) Eliza Doolittle's accent (2:22) The rain in Spain (2:36)
Dialect Refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers Applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class A dialect is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation (phonology, including prosody). Accent is appropriate, not dialect, refers to situations when a distinction is made only in terms of pronunciation. The particular speech patterns used by an individual are termed an idiolect.
Globalization The Call Center Movie (12:45) (English and globalization; Indian English) Funny Call Center Agent (5:34) cartoon
Sociolinguistics The descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Also studies how language varieties differ between groups separated by certain social variables, e.g., ethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of education, age, etc., and how creation and adherence to these rules is used to categorize individuals in social or socioeconomic classes. Sociolinguistics in the West first appeared in the 1960s and was pioneered by linguists such as William Labov in the US and Basil Bernstein in the UK.