Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Family Planning, Pregnancy, and Birth. Chapter Outline Children by Choice Are We Ready for Children? Children Having Children Family."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9 Family Planning, Pregnancy, and Birth
Chapter Outline Children by Choice Are We Ready for Children? Children Having Children Family Planning Decisions Infertility Pregnancy Birth
Factors Influencing Childbearing Decrease in infant mortality rate Postponement of parenthood Less social pressure to parent large families
Fertility Rates of Countries NationTotal Fertility Rate Germany1.3 China1.7 United States2.0 Brazil2.2 Mexico2.8 India3.1 Saudi Arabia5.7 Nigeria5.8
Decision to Have Kids Do we want to have children? Are we healthy enough to give a child the care, attention, and love he/she needs? Can we afford to provide our child with the food, clothing, and education needed for at least the next 18 years and perhaps beyond?
Decision to Have Kids How much time do we want for just each other and for establishing a home? How much more education do we want or need for the jobs and income we want? What if we don’t get the girl (boy) we want? What if the child is disabled in some way?
Some Facts about Teen Parents Teen mothers are many times more likely than older mothers to live below the poverty level. Only half of those who give birth before age 18 complete high school (compared to 96% of those who postpone childbearing). On the average, unwed teen mothers earn half as much money and are far more likely to be on welfare.
Birth Control Contraceptive is any agent used to prevent conception.
Abortion Methods Dilation and Curettage (D&C): A procedure that involves dilating the cervix and scraping out the contents with a curette. Vacuum Aspiration: A procedure in which the contents of the uterus are removed by suction. Saline Abortion: A procedure in which a salt solution is injected into the amniotic sac to kill the fetus, which is then expelled via uterine contractions.
Who Has Abortions? White46% Black29% Hispanic20% Protestant37% Catholic31% No religion24%
Fertility Fecund: having the capacity to reproduce
Infertility Infertile means that a man is not producing viable sperm, or a woman is either not producing viable eggs or has some other condition that makes it impossible to maintain a pregnancy.
Types of Infertility 1. Primary infertility: the couple has never conceived. 2. Secondary infertility: the couple has previously conceived, but is subsequently unable to conceive. 3. Pregnancy wastage: the woman is able to conceive, but unable to produce a live birth.
Treatments for Infertility Artificial Insemination Egg Freezing Fertility Drugs Artificial Fertilization and Embryo Transfer (In Vitro Fertilization) Surrogate Mothers
New Ways of Creating Babies
Possible Signs of Pregnancy A missed period. Nausea in the morning (morning sickness). Changes in shape and coloration of breasts. Increased need to urinate.
Possible Signs of Pregnancy Feelings of fatigue and sleepiness. Increased vaginal secretions. Increased retention of body fluids.
Pregnancy Terms False Pregnancy (pseudocyesis): Signs of pregnancy occur without the woman actually being pregnant Embryo: The developing organism from the second to the eighth week of pregnancy, characterized by the differentiation of the organs and tissues into their human form Fetus: The developing organism from the eighth week after conception until birth
Pregnancy Terms Umbilical Cord: A flexible cordlike structure connecting the fetus to the placenta and through which the fetus is fed and waste products are discharged Placenta: The organ that connects the fetus to the uterus by means of the umbilical cord
Birth Defects Congenital Defect: A condition existing at birth or before, as distinguished from a genetic defect Genetic Defect: An abnormality in the development of the fetus that is inherited through the genes, as distinguished from a congenital defect
Technology in Pregnancy Ultrasound: Sound waves are directed at the fetus that yield a visual picture of the fetus; used to detect potential problems in fetal development Fetoscopy: Examining the fetus through a small viewing tube inserted into the mother’s uterus
Natural Childbirth In natural childbirth the parents have learned about the birth process and participate in exercises such as breathing techniques to minimize pain and, therefore, the use of drugs.
Different Experiences Natural Childbirth Rooming in Alternative Birth Centers Home Births
1. Signs of pregnancy occurring without the woman actually being pregnant is called a) Amniocentesis b) Pseudocyesis c) False Pregnancy d) Both b and c
Answer: d Signs of pregnancy occurring without the woman actually being pregnant is called pseudocyesis or false pregnancy.
2. The developing organism from the eighth week after conception until birth is a a) Fetus b) Embryo c) Placenta d) Congenital defect
Answer: a The developing organism from the eighth week after conception until birth is a fetus.
3. The Rh Factor is a) Examining the fetus through a small viewing tube inserted into the mother’s uterus b) An element found in the blood of most people that can adversely affect fetal development if the parents differ on the element c) A condition existing at birth or before, as distinguished from a genetic defect d) An abnormality in the development of the fetus that is inherited through the genes, as distinguished from a congenital defect
Answer: b Rh factor is an element found in the blood of most people that can adversely affect fetal development if the parents differ on the element (Rh positive versus Rh negative).