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The Development of Sociology. Development in 19 th Century Europe Causes: – Industrialization and urbanization caused many social changes and highlighted.

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Presentation on theme: "The Development of Sociology. Development in 19 th Century Europe Causes: – Industrialization and urbanization caused many social changes and highlighted."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Development of Sociology

2 Development in 19 th Century Europe Causes: – Industrialization and urbanization caused many social changes and highlighted the impact of society on the individual – Scientific Revolution inspired many to study social issues in a systematic way Sociology = study of human social behavior and institutions in a scientific manner

3 Early European Sociologists Primarily from France, Germany, and Great Britain – Auguste Comte – Harriet Martineau – Herbert Spencer – Karl Marx – Emile Durkheim – Max Weber

4 August Comte ( , France) Father of sociology One of first to apply scientific methods to social issues Coined term “sociology” and believed it should be based on knowledge we can be positive is true (positivism) Studied social change to promote progress

5 Harriet Martineau ( , England) Used detached reporting to study American society and its promise of democracy Made connection between oppression of women and slavery Advocated that scholars should try to improve society not just study it

6 Herbert Spencer ( , England) Believed in biological model to society- society is a set of interdependent parts Father of social Darwinism- natural social selection would ensure “survival of the fittest” Sociologists and others should not interfere with social developments or problems

7 Karl Marx ( , Germany) Father of communism Saw structure of economy as a major influence on society Believed imbalance of power between classes would lead to conflict Emphasized role conflict plays in social change and led to development of conflict theory

8 Emile Durkheim ( , France) Developed first sociology course Believed in only focusing on observable social phenomena Focus on the specific function each part of society played in its maintenance Saw groups as separate from the individuals that form them

9 Max Weber ( , Prussia) Focused on effects of society on individual Believed sociologists should attempt to uncover people’s feelings through the meanings people attach to their actions (verstehen) Employed concept of the ideal type against which social reality can be measured

10 American Contributions Built on European work as US experienced its own Industrial Revolution First department of sociology at University of Chicago- focused on group interactions and finding practical solutions to social problems Expanded focus to marginalized groups – Jane Addams – W.E.B Du Bois

11 Jane Addams ( , US) Studied urban poor and provided first serious discussion on effects of industrialization and urbanization Focused on imbalance of power of social classes Developed Chicago’s Hull House to help immigrants and poor

12 W.E.B. Du Bois ( , US) Used empirical community studies to show the significance of race in American society Attacked assumption that African American were an inferior race Worked to help blacks with development of NAACP

13 Who is considered to be the father of sociology? A.Max Weber B.Herbert Spencer C.Auguste Comte D.Karl Marx

14 Who is the father of communism and studied conflict? A.Max Weber B.Herbert Spencer C.Emile Durkheim D.Karl Marx

15 Who was the father of social Darwinism (social natural selection)? A.Max Weber B.Herbert Spencer C.Emile Durkheim D.Harriet Martineau

16 Who focused on individuals’ interactions and feelings? A.Max Weber B.Jane Addams C.Herbert Spencer D.W.E.B. Du Bois

17 All of the following believed sociologists should attempt to solve social problems EXCEPT A.Jane Addams B.Harriet Martineau C.W.E.B. Du Bois D.Herbert Spencer E.Auguste Comte

18 Synthesis What were some of the main ideas and theories that developed during the 1800s and early 1900s about sociology? Which sociologist do you think was most important?


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