2 Someone who can’t find a job is _____. Homelessness is the result of ______.Immigrants come here because of____.
3 The Nature of Sociology Sociology - The scientific study of social structureSocial Structure - The patterned interaction of people in social relationshipsGroup behavior vs.. Individual Behavior - does the individual’s characteristics matter in a group setting?Conformity - behavior that matches group expectations.
4 Perspective - A particular point of view Sociological Perspective - The view that looks at groups, not individuals
5 Sociological Imagination (C Sociological Imagination (C. Wright Mills)- The ability to see the link between society and selfLooks at how social pressure affect behavior?Challenges conventional wisdom(ideas people assume to be true)
7 Origins of Sociology Auguste Comte - founder of sociology Positivism - knowledgeshould be derived fromscientific observationSocial Static - The study ofsocial stability and orderSocial Dynamics - The studyof social change
8 Harriet Martineau Pioneering feminist Saw a link between slavery and oppressionof womenWomen’s lack of economicpower keeps them dependent
9 Jane AddamsFocused on imbalance of power among social classesBelieved upper class exploited lower classW.E.B. DuBoisStudied social structure of African Americans
10 Herbert Spencer Karl Marx Social Darwinism - Natural selection would ensure the survival of the fittest societyKarl MarxBelieved class conflict would lead to classless society
11 Emile DurkheimMechanical solidarity - Social dependence based on widespread consensus of values and beliefsOrganic solidarity - social interdependence based on a high degree of specialization roles
12 Max WeberVerstehen - Understanding social behavior by putting yourself in the place of othersRationalization - The mind-set emphasizing knowledge, reason, and planning
13 Theoretical Perspectives Functionalism – emphasizes the contributions of each part of a society – assumes societies tend to return to a state of stabilityManifest – intended and recognizedLatent – unintended and unrecognizedDysfunction – negative consequence of an aspect of society
14 Theoretical Perspectives 1. conflict perspective – emphasizes conflict, competition, change, and constraints(limits) within a society2. symbolic interaction – focuses on the interaction among people based on mutually understood symbolsa. Herbert Blummer – coined term and outlined 3 assumptionsWe learn the meaning of a symbol by how others react to itonce we learn the meaning, we base our behavior on themwe use the meaning of symbols to imagine how others will respond to our behavior