Presentation on theme: "Purpose: supply the blood with oxygen to be delivered throughout the body …inhale oxygen …exhale carbon dioxide All of the human body cells require oxygen."— Presentation transcript:
Purpose: supply the blood with oxygen to be delivered throughout the body …inhale oxygen …exhale carbon dioxide All of the human body cells require oxygen for metabolism! Without oxygen, cells would not be able to grow, repair, reproduce, convert sugar into ATP energy.
Oxygen inhaled through the mouth and the nose. Oxygen passes through the trachea which stays open due to rings of cartilage. Trachea splits into two smaller tubes called the bronchi. Each bronchial tube divides into many smaller tubes connecting to tiny sacs called alveoli. Lungs contain about 600 million alveoli, each one surrounded by capillaries. Alveoli increase the surface area for exchange. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the capillaries and into arterial blood. Carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli. The carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the lungs.
The diaphragm is muscle located across the bottom of the chest cavity. The diaphragm contracts and relaxes and breathing takes place. Diaphragm contracts, and the volume of the chest cavity increases, causing a decrease in the pressure inside the chest cavity. The pressure is lower inside the chest cavity than it is outside of the body and oxygen is pulled into the lungs. (Inhaled) Contraction of the diaphragm leaves more space for the lungs to expand and lowers the internal air pressure. Diaphragm relaxes, and the chest cavity volume decreases increasing the pressure on the lungs forcing carbon dioxide out. (Exhaled) Relaxation of the diaphragm leaves less space for the lungs. Your lungs are ‘squeezed’ as the air is pushed up and out. The diaphragm literally changes the space and pressure inside to facilitate breathing.
Renal Pelvis Renal Medulla Renal Cortex
Kidneys = removes waste ‘urea’ from the blood. = maintain the volume and composition of body fluids within normal ranges = regulating the amount of water that is excreted in the urine = keep a stable balance of salts The hydrolysis of protein (meat, some vegetables, chicken) produces urea Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys. Kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Normal urine is sterile = fluids, salts and waste products, It is normally free of microorganisms such as: bacteria and fungi; and is usually free from viruses.
Each kidney has 1 million of these tiny filtering units
Nephron: filtrate The fluid is filtered from the blood by the glomerulus Bowman’s Capsule contains the primary filtering device of the nephron …travels to the proximal convoluted tubule …down the descending limb, loop of Henle and ascending limb …through the distal convoluted tubule and into the collecting duct… …All working to adjusts the level of salts, water, and urea excreted in the urine. Filtered blood flows to the renal vein and back to the heart.
Glucose Sodium water amino acids Filtered H 2 O and aqueous wastes Regulates K + Na + pH Ca 2+ H2OH2O NaCl H2OH2O Ascending Limb creates conditions Necessary for the gradient Solutes high Salty filtrate Impermeable to Water Become permeable To water in the Presence of ADH Urine is Hypertonic To blood plasma
The descending limb of Henle carries urine filtrate downward from the cortex to the medulla The ascending limb of Henle carries urine filtrate upward from the medulla into the cortex. Urine filtrate flowing in one tube is running parallel and counter to fluid filtrate flowing in another tube. The descending limb of Henle is permeable to water and impermeable to solutes. The fluid outside of the tube is more concentrated and water leaves it by osmosis. This causes the filtrate to become more concentrated. The ascending limb of Henle is impermeable to water but permeable to solutes: Na+, Cl- and urea. As the filtrate moves up the limb the ions move out making the filtrate less concentrated.
ADH makes the collecting duct of the nephron permeable to water, and water floods out into the renal medulla. The actual concentration of the urine is dependent on ADH (anti-diuretic hormone). ADH causes water to move out of the collecting ducts causing the urine to become more concentrated. When ADH is NOT present, the water stays in the urine and leaves the kidneys.
Thirst Plasma Concentration Of ADH Osmolarity Interstitial ADH prevents production of dilute urine. Bleeding, Vomiting, Diarrhea cause Secretion of ADH from the pituitary.
Adults eliminate about a quart and a half of urine each day. Bladder can hold about 2 cups of urine for about 3 ½ hours. A cluster of crystals which have formed in the urinary tract = kidney stone …When the stone is on the ‘move’ passing out of the kidney, move down the ureter = pain and discomfort. …May cause blood in the urine; urge to urinate; discomfort when urinating; Fever; chills = signs to see a doctor!
…Increases urinary output …Inhibits the secretion of ADH from the pituitary gland …Damages kidneys