3 The Roots of Modern Science Before the scientific revolution scholars turn to ancient ____________ or _____________ authors or the Bible for answers to scientific questionsThe Medieval ViewGeocentric Theory meant that the _________ revolved around the _________An idea supported by Ptolemy and the BibleA New Way of ThinkingThe basic idea of the scientific revolution is what?Based on observation and questioningHow did the Age of Exploration affect the way people thought? And the printing press?The “classical world” had come to an end
5 A Revolutionary Model of the Universe The Heliocentric TheoryNicolaus Copernicus was the first to reason that the earth and stars moved around the sun; an idea also known as the _________________ theoryWhy didn’t Copernicus want to publish his works?Galileo’s DiscoveriesGalileo’s 1st telescope, 1609Galileo’s findings refute Aristotle’s ideas but support which scientist?Conflict with the ChurchWhy would the church warn Galileo about supporting Copernicus and his theories?What happened to Galileo?----- Meeting Notes (9/26/12 14:51) -----hi.-aidan
6 The Scientific MethodThe scientific method is a logical procedure for _______________ and ________________ ideasProblem, hypothesis, experiment, conclusionBacon and DescartesBacon urges scientists to experiment and draw conclusionsDescartes relies on mathematics and logic…doubted until proved (“I think, therefore I am”)Newton Explains the Law of GravityHeaven and earth are linked through gravitation…every object in the universe attracts every other objectThe Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy explained what?
7 The Scientific Revolution Spreads Scientific InstrumentsZacharias Janssen invents the first what? Van Leeuwenhoek uses Janssen’s invention to do what?Torricelli and the barometer, Fahrenheit and Celsius both created _________________, the difference?Medicine and the Human BodyOn the Structure of the Human Body, significance?Introduction of the vaccine, giving small amounts of the germs helps with that?Discoveries in ChemistryBoyle’s Law of gasesWhat is the significance of all of this?
8 6.1 Daily QuestionsExplain the differences between the geocentric and heliocentric theories. What did the church think about the heliocentric theory, why?Explain the differences between Bacon and Descartes approaches to the scientific method.Honors Only3. How does the Scientific Revolution support the saying “necessity is the mother of invention”?
10 Two Views on Government Enlightenment-an intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought but what else?Hobbe’s Social ContractCivil War convinces Hobbes of the cruel nature of peopleThe idea of a social contract that asks people to hand over rights in exchange for _________ and ______.What gov’t did Hobbes believe was best?Locke’s Natural RightsBelieved in people and the idea of self- gov’tLife, liberty, and propertyPower comes from the consent of the people
11 The Philosophes Advocate Reason Philosophes-social critics in France that applied reason to all aspects of lifeReasonNatureHappinessProgressLibertyVoltaire Combats IntoleranceThe most brilliant and influential philosophe was a satirist, meaning what? Who did he attack?Fought for tolerance, reason, and freedom of ______ and _______.“…defend to the death your right to say it.”
12 The Philosophes Advocate Reason Montesquieu and the Separation of PowersThe study of political __________, believed what country was the best- governed?Executive, judicial, and legislative powers contributed to a balance of powerSeparation of powers=_______ and ___________Rousseau: Champion of Freedom“Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains.”Belief in ________ democracyHow was Rousseau’s social contract different from Hobbes’?
13 The Philosophes Advocate Reason Beccaria Promotes Criminal JusticeLaws exist to preserve justice not to do what?Speedy trialTorture should never be usedCapital punishment should be abolished, punishment based on the crime“Greatest good for the greatest number of people”
14 Women and the Enlightenment Most of the reforms and ideas of the Enlightenment did not address womenMary Wolstonecraft A Vindication on the Rights of Woman 1792…women’s education is just as important AND usefulEnlightenment ideas were spread in social gatherings called salonsWhy might men hesitate to give women education and equality under the law?
15 Legacy of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment produced 3 long-term effects:Belief in ProgressStrengthening of science’ philosophers and reformers attempted to change many long held beliefs such as?A More Secular LookPeople began to question _____________ beliefsStarted answering religious questions with math and science instead of the BibleImportance of the IndividualEncouraging people to use their own abilities instead of relying on what?Turning point in history?
16 6.2 Daily QuestionsExplain the difference between Hobbes’ and Rousseau’s social contract.Explain the impact of Montesquieu’s ideas on American government.Honors Only3. In your opinion, who was the most influential Enlightenment thinker? Why?
18 A World of IdeasEnlightenment ideas spread from Paris and the thinkers that lived there…salons hosted what groups of people and their ideas?Diderot’s Encyclopedia1751, Geoffrin finances the writing of an _____________ that includes articles by the leading scholars of EuropeThe publishing of the Encyclopedia angers who? Why?Salons and the Encyclopedia helped with the spread of ideas along with what?Enlightenment ideas even spread to the _________ ________...significance?
19 New Artistic Styles Neoclassical Style Emerges Baroque art deals with grand and ornate designs, example?Neoclassical designs were simple yet elegant, like that of Greece and RomeChanges in Music and LiteratureClassical music emerges…differences?Novels became popular among all classes…entertaining stories in everyday languagePamela and Tom Jones, examples of ____________ novels
24 Enlightenment and Monarchy The enlightened despots started a new trend of respecting the peoples’ rights…an idea encouraged by ____________What motivated the enlightened despots?Frederick the Great (Prussia)ReformsReligionCensorshipEducationJustice system (torture)What about the social order?“The first servant of the state.”
25 Enlightenment and Monarchy Joseph II (Austria)Son and successor of Maria TheresaLegal reforms and freedom of the ______ and _______What was Joseph’s most radical reform? Reaction? Overall result?Catherine the Great (Russia)Absolute monarch that sought reforms (wrote to who?)Creates a commission to change laws…did it work?Why did Catherine’s views on serfdom change?
26 Enlightenment and Monarchy Catherine Expands RussiaGains territory in southern Russia near the MediterraneanPoland is split up by ______, _______, and _______ into partitionsOverall Catherine expanded territory and international control for Russia
27 6.3 Daily QuestionsHow does Neoclassicism reflect the ideas of order and reason?Explain the differences between absolute rulers and enlightened despots.Honors Only3. Why do you think Enlightenment ideas spread so rapidly?