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Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc.,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc.,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240

3 Splash Screen

4 3 Contents CHAPTER FOCUS SECTION 1Religious Practices SECTION 2Science CHAPTER SUMMARY & STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER ASSESSMENT Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section. Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.

5 4 Chapter Focus 1 Overview Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter 11 describes the many cultural contributions made by the Greeks during the Golden Age.  –Section 1 discusses Greek creativity and the people’s attempt to honor their gods and goddesses especially in athletics and theater.  –Section 2 identifies Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle and the development of Greek science.

6 5 Chapter Focus 2 Objectives describe how the Greeks honored their gods and goddesses.  After studying this chapter, you will be able to: summarize Greek contributions to athletics and the arts.  discuss how Greek thinkers influenced the development of world civilization. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

7 6 Chapter Focus 3 Read to Discover Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 179 of your textbook. How the Greeks honored their gods and goddesses  What contributions in athletics and the arts were made during the “Golden Age” of Greek culture  How Greek thinkers influenced the development of world civilization

8 7 Chapter Focus 4 oracles  prophecy  pancratium  pentathlon  philosophia  Socratic method  hypothesis  syllogism  Herodotus  Socrates  Plato  Aristotle  Terms to Learn People to Know Mount Olympus  Olympia Places to Locate Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the Speaker On button to listen to the words.

9 8 The Greeks made many contributions to world civilization. Their accomplishments resulted, in part, because of an important religious belief. The Greeks felt their gods were honored if people tried to imitate them. The greater the skill the Greeks showed in thinking, athletic games, or the arts, the more the gods were honored. Greek efforts to do their best produced a “Golden Age” of learning. Many historians call this period the “Classical Age of Greece.” Chapter Focus 5 Why It’s Important Click the Speaker On button to replay audio.

10 End of Chapter Focus

11 10 Section 1-1 Religious Practices Although most Greeks held similar religious beliefs, there was no single Greek religion.  Officials in each polis were in charge of public feasts and sacrifices.  Greek priests and priestesses often served as oracles, or persons who, it was believed, could speak with the gods.  Oracles generally give advice in the form of a prophecy, or a statement of what might happen in the future. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1 begins on page 179 of your textbook.

12 11 Section 1-2 Gods and Goddesses of Mount Olympus Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. During the Golden Age, the Greeks worshiped the gods of Mount Olympus.  There were 12 major gods and goddesses. Each had specific duties to carry out.  The Greeks placed importance on the worth of the individual, allowing them to approach their gods with dignity.  The Greeks built temples and held festivals, including the Olympic Games and the theater, to honor their gods.

13 12 Section 1-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Every four years, in the middle of summer, a festival was held in Olympia to honor the god Zeus.  The festival was known as the Olympic Games and was the most important sporting event in Greece.  Athletes came from all over Greece and from Greek colonies in Africa, Italy, and Asia Minor to take part in the games.  Only men were allowed to take part; women were not even allowed to watch. The Olympic Games

14 13 Section 1-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Olympics were made up of many events including:  –chariot races  –boxing  –pancratium–a combination of boxing and wrestling  –pentathlon–made up of five events: running, jumping, throwing the discus, wrestling, and hurling the javelin  The Olympic Games (cont.) Olympic winners were heroes.

15 14 Section 1-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Between the different events at the games, poets read their works aloud.  Herodotus, the “Father of History,” first read his account of the Persian Wars at the Olympics. The Olympic Games (cont.)

16 15 Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The theater grew out of festivals given in honor of the god Dionysus.  About 600 B.C., the Ionians began telling stories about Dionysus at festivals.  Stories were then told about other gods and heroes.  About the time of the Persian Wars, a Greek poet named Aeschylus added an additional character to each story.  Aeschylus created what came to be known as a play. The Theater

17 16 Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The first Greek plays were tragedies, or stories about suffering.  All dealt with the past and with the relationships between people and gods.  Three of the great writers of tragedy were Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.  Soon after the development of tragedy, the comedy, or a play with a happy ending, came into being.  Unlike tragedies, Greek comedies were about the present. The Theater (cont.)

18 17 Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. One of the greatest writers of Greek comedy was Aristophanes.  Greek plays were performed only at community festivals.  Each actor wore a huge canvas and plaster mask that showed the sex, age, and mood of the character.  The Greeks believed support of the theater was a public responsibility.  A panel of citizens judged the plays at each festival. The Theater (cont.)

19 18 Section 1-Assessment 1 Section Assessment How did the Greeks honor their gods and goddesses? They built temples, held festivals, and tried to imitate the gods by excelling in everything they did. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

20 19 Section 1-Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) Who took part in the Olympics? Athletes from all over Greece and from Greek colonies in Africa, Italy, and Asia Minor took part in the Olympics. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

21 20 Section 1-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment Do you think support of the theater should be the responsibility of government or private groups? Explain. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

22 21 Events at the Greek Olympics included: chariot racing, boxing, pancratium (boxing and wrestling), pentathlon (running, jumping, dicus throwing, wrestling, hurling the javelin). Section 1-Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Draw a diagram like the one on page 185 of your textbook, and use it to list events at the Greek Olympics. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

23 End of Section 2

24 23 Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2 begins on page 185 of your textbook. Science Among the things on which the Greeks placed great importance was intellect, or the ability to learn and reason.  To the Greeks, studying the laws of nature and loving wisdom were the same thing; they called it philosophia.  Today, people who search for such knowledge and wisdom are known as scientists and philosophers.  Much of what they know is based on the thoughts of the Greeks.

25 24 Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Socrates In 399 B.C., Socrates, a 70-year-old Athenian philosopher, was tried in Athens.  He believed people could discover truth if they knew how to think.  In his search for truth, Socrates walked throughout Athens trying to teach people how to think.  He did this by asking questions.  This form of questioning is known as the Socratic method.

26 25 Section 2-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Some began to consider Socrates a threat to Athens.  Socrates was tried before a jury of some 500 citizens and sentenced to death. Socrates (cont.)

27 26 Section 2-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. All that is known about Socrates comes from one of his pupils, an Athenian aristocrat named Plato.  Plato set up the Academy, a school to train government leaders, outside Athens in the sacred grove of the hero Academus.  He thought political liberty was disorder and did not approve of it.  Plato set down his ideas about an ideal state in a book called The Republic–the first book ever written on political science. Plato

28 27 Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In a work called The Dialogues, Plato showed how difficult it is to discover truth.  The Dialogues consists of a series of discussions in which different people talk about such things as truth and loyalty. Plato (cont.)

29 28 Section 2-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Aristotle was one of Plato’s brightest pupils.  Before he died in 322 B.C., he founded his own school in Athens and wrote more than 200 books.  He believed in using one’s senses to discover the laws that govern the physical world.  Aristotle also added to the ideas of an earlier Greek scientist named Thales of Miletus. Aristotle

30 29 Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Thales developed the first two steps of what is known today as the scientific method.  –First, Thales collected information.  –Then, based on what he observed, he formed a hypothesis, or possible explanation.  –Aristotle provided a third step in the scientific method when he said that a hypothesis must be tested to see if it is correct. Aristotle (cont.)

31 30 Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Aristotle contributed the syllogism to logic, or the science of reasoning.  The syllogism is a method of reasoning that uses three related statements. Aristotle (cont.)

32 31 Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Greeks were trying to add to their store of knowledge.  Greek scientists discovered that natural events are not caused by the way gods behave.  They also learned that the world is governed by natural laws that people can discover and understand.  Thales of Miletus not only developed the first two steps of the scientific method, but also correctly predicted an eclipse of the sun in 585 B.C. Discoveries and Inventions

33 32 Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The “Father of Scientific Medicine” was Hippocrates.  Hippocrates drew up a list of rules about how doctors should use their skills to help their patients, which is known today as the Hippocratic Oath.  Doctors all over the world still promise to honor the Hippocratic Oath. Discoveries and Inventions (cont.)

34 33 Section 2-Assessment 1 Section Assessment What were Plato’s beliefs about government? Plato believed in order, no political liberty, and wise and good rulers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

35 34 Section 2-Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) Drawing Conclusions Review the syllogism on page 188 of your textbook. Then write a syllogism to help you draw a conclusion about one of the Greek thinkers in this chapter. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

36 35 Section 2-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Draw a diagram like the one on page 190 of your textbook, and use it to show the steps in the scientific method. Step 1: collect information Step 2: form a hypothesis Step 3: test the hypothesis Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

37 End of Section 2

38 37 Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary & Study Guide During the “Golden Age,” the Greeks made many contributions in thinking, athletics, and the arts.  The Olympic Games, held every four years in honor of the Greek god Zeus, was the most important sporting event in Greece.  The theater, and eventually the play, developed out of a festival given in honor of the Greek god Dionysus.  Socrates, in his search for truth, developed a form of questioning known as the Socratic method. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

39 38 Chapter Summary 2 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Plato, who was one of Socrates’s pupils, founded a school and wrote the first book on political science.  Aristotle developed a system of classification and provided a third step in the scientific method.

40 End of Chapter Summary

41 40 Chapter Assessment 1 Understanding the Main Idea What was the role of oracles in Greek religion? They spoke to the gods and gave advice and prophecies to the Greek people. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

42 41 Chapter Assessment 2 What role did women play in the Olympic Games? They were not allowed to take part in or watch the games. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

43 42 Chapter Assessment 3 What was the relationship between Greek historians and the Olympic Games? Historians read their works aloud at the games and dated historical events by the Olympiads. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

44 43 Chapter Assessment 4 How did tragedies differ from comedies? Tragedies told about suffering and relationships between people and the gods. Comedies were humorous and poked fun at people. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

45 44 Chapter Assessment 5 How did Athenians react to the teachings of Socrates? Some were pleased but others saw Socrates’ ideas as very dangerous. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

46 45 Chapter Assessment 6 Understanding the Main Idea Why did Plato set up the Academy? because he hoped to train government leaders Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

47 46 Chapter Assessment 7 How does the scientific method work? collecting information and forming and testing a hypothesis Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

48 47 Chapter Assessment 8 In what were Greek scientists most interested? adding to their knowledge Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

49 48 Chapter Assessment 9 What was Euclid’s most famous achievement? advances in mathematics Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

50 49 Chapter Assessment 10 What would you have done if it had been your decision whether or not to put Socrates on trial? Critical Thinking

51 50 Chapter Assessment 11 Why is the scientific method important to modern science? It provides a consistent way for scientists to do research. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

52 51 Chapter Assessment 12 How important was religion in ancient Greek civilization? Explain your answer. Religion and the gods were very important. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

53 52 Chapter Assessment 13 Would you like being taught through the Socratic method? Why or why not? Critical Thinking

54 53 Chapter Assessment 14 Movement The Olympic Games drew contestants from all the areas under Greek control. What different methods of travel would athletes have used to reach Olympia where the games were held? Create a poster advertising transportation to the games. major forms of transportation would include by foot, cart, and horse, and the proximity of the sea Geography in History Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

55 54 Chapter Assessment 15 The Greek oracles often spoke in riddles. Solve the following riddle: Your mother has received some sad news. Your mother’s father’s daughter has called to say your brother’s grandmother’s son’s wife’s son has died. Who called? Who died? your aunt; your cousin Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

56 End of Chapter Assessment

57 56 History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Human Heritage: A World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to

58 57 Global Chronology Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 585 B.C. Thales predicts eclipse of sun 776 B.C. First Olympic Games 387 B.C. Plato sets up Academy 399 B.C. Trial of Socrates 322 B.C. Aristotle dies

59 58 People in History 2.1 After studying in Greece, Aristotle returned to Macedonia to teach the son of King Philip II. This boy, later known as Alexander the Great, would one day conquer many lands, including Greece. Thus, Aristotle’s ideas came to influence an entire empire. Aristotle 384 B.C. –322 B.C. Greek Scientist

60 59 Fun Facts Contents 1 The Oracle at Delphi The Olympics Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section. Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.

61 60 Fun Facts 1.1 Pilgrims to the oracle at Delphi descended a staircase into an underground vault in the Temple of Apollo, where a priestess sat. Sulfurous gases bubbled up from the crack in the earth beneath her chair, swirling around her as the pilgrim asked a question. Priests then translated the answer into a verse for the pilgrim to recite and try to understand. The Oracle at Delphi

62 61 Fun Facts 1.2 According to legend, King Pelops founded the Olympics to repay Zeus for helping him win a chariot race and gain Hippodameia, a rival king’s daughter. Hippodameia then began the Heraia, a festival honoring Zeus’s wife, Hera. The Heraia, held at the same time as the Olympics, gave women a chance to compete in foot races. The Olympics

63 62 Fun Facts 2.1 Rules for Life Many quotes about ethical, or morally correct, living have been attributed to Socrates. These are two of the best known: “The unexamined life is not worth living.” “I am a citizen, not of Athens or Greece, but of the world.”

64 63 Then & Now 1.1 Orchestra is a Greek word from the verb “to dance.” At first, it meant the space between the stage and the audience where the chorus performed. In modern times, the term designates both the area in front of the stage and the group of musicians who plays there. Orchestra

65 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

66 End of Slide Show


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