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From Calvin & Hobbs by Bill Watterson. s t u m b l i n g w i t h c o n f i d e n c e a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e p r a c t i c e s t u m b l i n.

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Presentation on theme: "From Calvin & Hobbs by Bill Watterson. s t u m b l i n g w i t h c o n f i d e n c e a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e p r a c t i c e s t u m b l i n."— Presentation transcript:

1 From Calvin & Hobbs by Bill Watterson

2 s t u m b l i n g w i t h c o n f i d e n c e a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e p r a c t i c e s t u m b l i n g w i t h c o n f i d e n c e a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e p r a c t i c e P a u l K l e i m an P A L A T I N E Creativity surrounds us on all sides: from composers to chemists, cartoonists to choreographers. But creativity is a puzzle, a paradox, some say a mystery. (Boden, 1991) Creativity surrounds us on all sides: from composers to chemists, cartoonists to choreographers. But creativity is a puzzle, a paradox, some say a mystery. (Boden, 1991)

3 C r e a t i v i t y some background Some assumptions some history some definitions some models some conceptions C r e a t i v i t y some background Some assumptions some history some definitions some models some conceptions A s s e s s m e n t why assess creativity? assessment as form qualitative research two paradigms negotiated assessment A s s e s s m e n t why assess creativity? assessment as form qualitative research two paradigms negotiated assessment a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e p r a c t i c e

4 Progress towards a knowledge-based society and economy will require that European universities, as centres of knowledge creation, and their partners in society and government give creativity their full attention. The complex questions of the future will not be solved “by the book”, but by creative, forward looking individuals and groups who are not afraid to question established ideas and are able to cope with the insecurity and uncertainty this entails. If Europe should not succeed in strengthening creativity in higher education, the very goal of a European knowledge society would be at stake. The ‘creativity agenda’ s o m e b a c k g r o u n d & s o m e a s s u m p t i o n s (EUA, 2007)

5 the challenge for universities ….is to promote and support a culture of teaching and learning that parallels an unpredictable and irregular social and commercial world in which supply and demand is neither linear nor stable, and labour is shaped by complex patterns of anticipations, time and space. (McWilliam, 2007) s o m e b a c k g r o u n d & s o m e a s s u m p t i o n s The ‘creativity agenda’

6 c r e a t i v i t y w h a t do y o u t h i n k i t i s ? (words, phrases, images) c r e a t i v i t y w h a t do y o u t h i n k i t i s ? (words, phrases, images)

7 intuitive, working with process, making connections, thinking on feet, expression, reflecting in action, thinking outside of the box, keeping an open mind, embodiment, embodied learning, listening to all senses and working intuitively with unconscious, right brain, expression, end product, play, psychotherapy, receptive, trial and error, aesthetic distancing, when faced with an empty page taking a line for a walk, responding creatively to others. Originality. Purposive action (eg designing) coupled with daydreaming/ subconscious percolation of ideas. Making unusual connections between ideas/things. Taking a sideways look at existing ideas/things. Originality Coming up with something original, at least to you Sorry, mind goes blank. Imagination Novel New different unusual surreal brainstorming inventive intelligent Imagining, making, synthesising fantasy, culture, imagination programming, debugging, designing, photography, art, music, problem solving, arguing, thinking, Hypothesis, idea, suggestions, question, conceptualisation thinking / doing something original outside conventional pathway unexpected constructive innovative, imaginative, different applications, right brain. imaginative, solution-seeker, out-of-the-box thinker, systems thinker, connectivity, intuitive, crazy person! imagination, intelligence, production, energy, artistic imagination; divergent; going beyond what you already know or believe; challenging assumptions and givens; fearlessness; applying knowledge but not being bound by rules or conventions problem-solving understanding hitting the nail on the head making connections new angles innovative thinking problem solving impulse / courage / authenticity / unique fusion of processes / inspired / original fun; experiment; sharing; exchange; enjoyment; excitement; success; development; growth; satisfaction; risk innovation rich time consuming poorly rewarded counter-productive feedback surprise, vitality, clarity, recognition, danger, novelty, adaptability, flexibility, awareness, knowledge, curiosity Imagination Enthusiasm Interest Bright colours Lateral thinking Doing things differently Music Art Drama Writing Movement Bounce Energy Innovation New Design interesting, vibrant, change, colourful, energetic, artistic, alternative making things happen putting something new in the world planning dreaming organising imagining surprising making the heart stop catching the eye discovering being brave daring being sure of uncertainty imagining the world differently making a mess and selecting the bits that make sense experimenting arguing against the norm imagination making open free-thinking inner original inventive pleasure, discipline, being absorbed and oblivious to the rest of the world, a child again, planning, natural INNOVATION INDUSTRY THOUGHT APPLICATION DOING ABSORPTION KNOWLEDGE SKILLS Imagination, freedom, choice, originality expanding ideas, thinking about things from a different perspective to the standard way, finding solutions that are not at first obvious, lateral thinking, something unique imagine, think, question, challenge, learn, try out, 'think different', start with intuition and build on what you feel, communicate innovative, lateral, inductive, transcendental, spiritual, disturbed, free association, spontaneous imagination, flexibility, fluidity, invention, associations, connections, planning and building frameworks, generating, pursuing and developing ideas, learning and using technical skills to express ideas, divergent and convergent thinking, process, concentration, abstract ideas being shaped into concrete products, making the familiar strange and the strange familiar, sharing and digesting ideas from and with creative people, brainstorming and systematic thinking, experimenting etc free thinking, innovative, artistic, intuitive, unusual play, fun, expression, pattern, maps, scores, cycles, freedom, open and closed instructions, an outcome, performance, experimentation, engagement with emotions, intellect and imagination, exploration, investigation, open mindedness, flexibility, awareness of many strands, juggling, holding, selecting, forming, re forming, re viewing, rehearsal, improvisation, balance control and openness, channels, focus, energy, imagination, day dreaming, dreaming, meditation, dancing, singing, poetry, poetic, abstraction, bringing together, layers doing things differently open minded making something adapting to new circumstances drawing, writing (words or music), planning, putting ideas into a shareable form Imagination fun off the wall out side the box different different, imaginative, breath-taking, innovative, explosion ideas difference diversity exploring learning developing making play fun imagination New Labour's puritanical economism (the idea that the creative industries will promote economic growth and prosperity) fashionable managerspeak intuition insight imagination context domain flow in the zone rolling problem solving illumination association bisociation synectics innovation, new, cognitive fluidity Originality, visual appeal, being different thinking outside the box new different curiosity experimentation exploration lateral intuition 'wish I'd done it....or thought of it'' innovation aspiration development new future revision thought engaging challenging problem-solving responsive people-centered Art Artistic Energy Imagination Design Intelligence Inventive Lateral thought Interesting Style Standards Fun Inspiration I hate the phrase! messy, an excuse, generation, innovation, inventive, original, reinventive, misunderstood, arty novelty, innovation, modification, new, risk, fear, knowledge, will, power, capacity, playful beautiful original exciting curiosity moving into new levels of thought grappling with tiny moments communication bringing words alive reaching out. Invention, imagination, inspiration, originality "accounting" (Don't laugh: 'creative accounting' was a buzz phrase long before Enron showed us just what fun could be had with it!) art, freedom, music, pictures, literature, Um... all arty stuff. I'm sure scientists can be creative too, indeed have to be, but this idea doesn't spring to mind. Solving problems Analysing expanding views, numerous possibilities of seing a concept or a problem, expression in an universally understood manner, ability to invent and use new method and procedure, being brave and taking risks, not afraid to fail, not concerned with established opinion, pushing boundaries of knowledge and experience. design, problematised, innovate, debate, reflect, analyse poetry makar (Scots) doing craft Writing, thinking, teaching, living, Arts, 'fostering', 'response' Imaginative, ingenious, innovative, original, visionary doing something new, or in a different way thinking outside the box putting things together in a new way trying out different ways of doing something challenging the received wisdom For Big 'C' : Idea-Combining, Divergence, Intuition, New connections, Counter-Intuition, Cognitive Unconscious For Small 'c' : Transformation, forced connections, associative thinking, most of the so-called Creativity tools. fun design developing something new, novel simple yet elegant surprising beautiful functional 2 aspects of creativity: * Creation of things - as with the creativity associated with producing pieces of artwork, music, writing etc * Creation of ideas - thinking in new ways, looking at facts with different perspectives new synthesis human lateral thinking new, innovative, exciting, a pleasure to witness as it happens either in one's own work or the work of others, a pleasure to see in the work of others (after the event), I think it's heavily context dependent. It's used pejoratively (as in 'creative accounting' but also in criticism of answers which wriggle out of answering the question, in real life as well as in exams and essays). In its pure form I think it goes with 'thinking' more than with anything else much - i.e. creative thinking is something that I value but I don't regard simply the act of 'making things' as necessarily 'creative' in that context. Outside academia, it is used in that way - a potter is creative because s/he creates pottery - whether or not it is new, artistic, or whatever. The most creative thinkers I have known have come from scientific backgrounds and worked in science professionally. I think this is because I recognise creativity in them more easily than I recognise it in 'creative artists'. I think 'creative arts' as a university department uses the word as in 'pottery' not as in 'creative thinking' which doesn't help! theatre, the arts, design, cooking, the unusual, solutions, spontaneous, engaged, innovative, able to see many perspectives, able to connect ideas, being able to see something from a different perspective, fresh, innovative, individual, new, arresting, captivating, provoking, inspiring, selective/deceptive, ability to move in unexpected directions, taking a line for walk, the wow factor, making something wonderful and different happen, inspirational imagination, out of the box, building frameworks, generating, pursuing and developing ideas, learning and using technical skills to express ideas, divergent and convergent thinking, process, concentration, abstract ideas being shaped into concrete products, making the familiar strange and the strange familiar, sharing and digesting ideas from and with creative people, brainstorming ideas, learning and using technical skills to express ideas, divergent and convergent thinking, process, concentration, abstract ideas being shaped into concrete products, making the familiar strange and the strange familiar, sharing and digesting ideas from and with creative people, brainstorming and systematic thinking, experimenting etc free listening to all senses and working intuitively with unconscious doing something original outside conventional pathway unique fusion of processes / inspired / original fun making things happen putting something new in the world planning dreaming organising generating, pursuing and developing ideas making the familiar strange and the strange familiar doing things differently imaginative, breath-taking, grappling with tiny moments “wish I'd done it....or thought of it'' 'creative accounting‘ (don’t laugh- think Enron & what fun they had!) being brave and taking risks,not afraid to fail not concerned with established opinion arresting, captivating, provoking able to connect ideas transformation taking a line for walk the wow factor making something wonderful and different happen ability to move in unexpected directions

8 intuitive, working with process, making connections, thinking on feet, expression, reflecting in action, thinking outside of the box, keeping an open mind, embodiment, embodied learning, listening to all senses and working intuitively with unconscious, right brain, expression, end product, play, psychotherapy, receptive, trial and error, aesthetic distancing, when faced with an empty page taking a line for a walk, responding creatively to others. Originality. Purposive action (eg designing) coupled with daydreaming/ subconscious percolation of ideas. Making unusual connections between ideas/things. Taking a sideways look at existing ideas/things. Originality Coming up with something original, at least to you Sorry, mind goes blank. Imagination Novel New different unusual surreal brainstorming inventive intelligent Imagining, making, synthesising fantasy, culture, imagination programming, debugging, designing, photography, art, music, problem solving, arguing, thinking, Hypothesis, idea, suggestions, question, conceptualisation thinking / doing something original outside conventional pathway unexpected constructive innovative, imaginative, different applications, right brain. imaginative, solution-seeker, out-of-the-box thinker, systems thinker, connectivity, intuitive, crazy person! imagination, intelligence, production, energy, artistic imagination; divergent; going beyond what you already know or believe; challenging assumptions and givens; fearlessness; applying knowledge but not being bound by rules or conventions problem-solving understanding hitting the nail on the head making connections new angles innovative thinking problem solving impulse / courage / authenticity / unique fusion of processes / inspired / original fun; experiment; sharing; exchange; enjoyment; excitement; success; development; growth; satisfaction; risk innovation rich time consuming poorly rewarded counter-productive feedback surprise, vitality, clarity, recognition, danger, novelty, adaptability, flexibility, awareness, knowledge, curiosity Imagination Enthusiasm Interest Bright colours Lateral thinking Doing things differently Music Art Drama Writing Movement Bounce Energy Innovation New Design interesting, vibrant, change, colourful, energetic, artistic, alternative making things happen putting something new in the world planning dreaming organising imagining surprising making the heart stop catching the eye discovering being brave daring being sure of uncertainty imagining the world differently making a mess and selecting the bits that make sense experimenting arguing against the norm imagination making open free-thinking inner original inventive pleasure, discipline, being absorbed and oblivious to the rest of the world, a child again, planning, natural INNOVATION INDUSTRY THOUGHT APPLICATION DOING ABSORPTION KNOWLEDGE SKILLS Imagination, freedom, choice, originality expanding ideas, thinking about things from a different perspective to the standard way, finding solutions that are not at first obvious, lateral thinking, something unique imagine, think, question, challenge, learn, try out, 'think different', start with intuition and build on what you feel, communicate innovative, lateral, inductive, transcendental, spiritual, disturbed, free association, spontaneous imagination, flexibility, fluidity, invention, associations, connections, planning and building frameworks, generating, pursuing and developing ideas, learning and using technical skills to express ideas, divergent and convergent thinking, process, concentration, abstract ideas being shaped into concrete products, making the familiar strange and the strange familiar, sharing and digesting ideas from and with creative people, brainstorming and systematic thinking, experimenting etc free thinking, innovative, artistic, intuitive, unusual play, fun, expression, pattern, maps, scores, cycles, freedom, open and closed instructions, an outcome, performance, experimentation, engagement with emotions, intellect and imagination, exploration, investigation, open mindedness, flexibility, awareness of many strands, juggling, holding, selecting, forming, re forming, re viewing, rehearsal, improvisation, balance control and openness, channels, focus, energy, imagination, day dreaming, dreaming, meditation, dancing, singing, poetry, poetic, abstraction, bringing together, layers doing things differently open minded making something adapting to new circumstances drawing, writing (words or music), planning, putting ideas into a shareable form Imagination fun off the wall out side the box different different, imaginative, breath-taking, innovative, explosion ideas difference diversity exploring learning developing making play fun imagination New Labour's puritanical economism (the idea that the creative industries will promote economic growth and prosperity) fashionable managerspeak intuition insight imagination context domain flow in the zone rolling problem solving illumination association bisociation synectics innovation, new, cognitive fluidity Originality, visual appeal, being different thinking outside the box new different curiosity experimentation exploration lateral intuition 'wish I'd done it....or thought of it'' innovation aspiration development new future revision thought engaging challenging problem-solving responsive people-centered Art Artistic Energy Imagination Design Intelligence Inventive Lateral thought Interesting Style Standards Fun Inspiration I hate the phrase! messy, an excuse, generation, innovation, inventive, original, reinventive, misunderstood, arty novelty, innovation, modification, new, risk, fear, knowledge, will, power, capacity, playful beautiful original exciting curiosity moving into new levels of thought grappling with tiny moments communication bringing words alive reaching out. Invention, imagination, inspiration, originality "accounting" (Don't laugh: 'creative accounting' was a buzz phrase long before Enron showed us just what fun could be had with it!) art, freedom, music, pictures, literature, Um... all arty stuff. I'm sure scientists can be creative too, indeed have to be, but this idea doesn't spring to mind. Solving problems Analysing expanding views, numerous possibilities of seing a concept or a problem, expression in an universally understood manner, ability to invent and use new method and procedure, being brave and taking risks, not afraid to fail, not concerned with established opinion, pushing boundaries of knowledge and experience. design, problematised, innovate, debate, reflect, analyse poetry makar (Scots) doing craft Writing, thinking, teaching, living, Arts, 'fostering', 'response' Imaginative, ingenious, innovative, original, visionary doing something new, or in a different way thinking outside the box putting things together in a new way trying out different ways of doing something challenging the received wisdom For Big 'C' : Idea-Combining, Divergence, Intuition, New connections, Counter-Intuition, Cognitive Unconscious For Small 'c' : Transformation, forced connections, associative thinking, most of the so-called Creativity tools. fun design developing something new, novel simple yet elegant surprising beautiful functional 2 aspects of creativity: * Creation of things - as with the creativity associated with producing pieces of artwork, music, writing etc * Creation of ideas - thinking in new ways, looking at facts with different perspectives new synthesis human lateral thinking new, innovative, exciting, a pleasure to witness as it happens either in one's own work or the work of others, a pleasure to see in the work of others (after the event), I think it's heavily context dependent. It's used pejoratively (as in 'creative accounting' but also in criticism of answers which wriggle out of answering the question, in real life as well as in exams and essays). In its pure form I think it goes with 'thinking' more than with anything else much - i.e. creative thinking is something that I value but I don't regard simply the act of 'making things' as necessarily 'creative' in that context. Outside academia, it is used in that way - a potter is creative because s/he creates pottery - whether or not it is new, artistic, or whatever. The most creative thinkers I have known have come from scientific backgrounds and worked in science professionally. I think this is because I recognise creativity in them more easily than I recognise it in 'creative artists'. I think 'creative arts' as a university department uses the word as in 'pottery' not as in 'creative thinking' which doesn't help! theatre, the arts, design, cooking, the unusual, solutions, spontaneous, engaged, innovative, able to see many perspectives, able to connect ideas, being able to see something from a different perspective, fresh, innovative, individual, new, arresting, captivating, provoking, inspiring, selective/deceptive, ability to move in unexpected directions, taking a line for walk, the wow factor, making something wonderful and different happen, inspirational imagination, out of the box, building frameworks, generating, pursuing and developing ideas, learning and using technical skills to express ideas, divergent and convergent thinking, process, concentration, abstract ideas being shaped into concrete products, making the familiar strange and the strange familiar, sharing and digesting ideas from and with creative people, brainstorming ideas, learning and using technical skills to express ideas, divergent and convergent thinking, process, concentration, abstract ideas being shaped into concrete products, making the familiar strange and the strange familiar, sharing and digesting ideas from and with creative people, brainstorming and systematic thinking, experimenting etc free listening to all senses and working intuitively with unconscious doing something original outside conventional pathway unique fusion of processes / inspired / original fun making things happen putting something new in the world planning dreaming organising generating, pursuing and developing ideas making the familiar strange and the strange familiar doing things differently imaginative, breath-taking, grappling with tiny moments “wish I'd done it....or thought of it'' 'creative accounting‘ (don’t laugh- think Enron & what fun they had!) being brave and taking risks,not afraid to fail not concerned with established opinion arresting, captivating, provoking able to connect ideas transformation taking a line for walk the wow factor making something wonderful and different happen ability to move in unexpected directions Others: excite/exciting, divergent, freedom, challenging, (looking/seeing/trying) from a different perspective, surprise/surprising, curiosity, open mind/mindedness, risk, spontaneity / spontaneous, unconscious, beautiful, mess/messy, pleasure, being brave, ingenious, fresh, provoking, captivating, individual, arresting, visionary, challenge, engaged, engagement (with emotions), counter- intuition, being a child, being absorbed, breathtaking, pushing boundaries, choice, insight, flow, unexpected, illumination, fantasy, transformation. Imagination/imaginative New Innovation/innovative Different / differently Original / Originality Fun Intuitive Inventive Lateral (thinking) outside the box Inspiration/inspired/inspiring Novel/novelty Play/playful Thinking Making Doing Solving Dreaming

9 h o w ( c r e a t i v e) w a s i t f o r y o u ? ( s h a r e a c r e a t i v e m o m e n t i n l e a r n i n g a n d t e a c h i n g ) h o w ( c r e a t i v e) w a s i t f o r y o u ? ( s h a r e a c r e a t i v e m o m e n t i n l e a r n i n g a n d t e a c h i n g )

10 Creativity ‘health’ warning Creativity is a culturally situated phenomenon Discourses, practices and underpinning conceptual frameworks related to creativity not ‘culturally neutral’. Research and literature on creativity is dominated by western models and conceptualisations Creativity is a culturally situated phenomenon Discourses, practices and underpinning conceptual frameworks related to creativity not ‘culturally neutral’. Research and literature on creativity is dominated by western models and conceptualisations

11 higher education is full of creative people the act of teaching, with its relative autonomy, ought to provide fertile conditions for people to be creative in order to promote students’ learning relatively few take advantage of this opportunity much curriculum design/delivery/ assessment is antithetical to creativity need to increase our understanding of how educators might design, develop (and assess!) genuinely creative processes in their practice s o m e a s s u m p t i o n s

12 elite/individual/genius or democratic/sociable/collaborative original/from nothing or generic/transformative arts-specific or residing in all human endeavour spontaneous or taught and learnt ubiquitous or special universal or culture-specific imaginative and intuitive or knowledge and skills-based process-based or product-led ineffable and instinctive or quantifiable and testable emotional or rational elite/individual/genius or democratic/sociable/collaborative original/from nothing or generic/transformative arts-specific or residing in all human endeavour spontaneous or taught and learnt ubiquitous or special universal or culture-specific imaginative and intuitive or knowledge and skills-based process-based or product-led ineffable and instinctive or quantifiable and testable emotional or rational Banaji (2006) review of literature on creativity in education creativity: some binary oppositions

13 s o m e h i s t o r y

14 “The tradition of all the dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brain of the living”. Plato Creativity as mysterious, inspirational, gift of the gods, ‘eureka’, ‘elite’. Aristotle Creativity as everyday. The act of bringing something into being. ‘Everyman ’ 19 th century Romanticism e.g. the genius, ( mad, bad and dangerous!) 19 th Cent. ‘Scientific Enquiry’ e.g. Galton’s exploration of genius Freud 1907 Wallas 1926 Guilford 1950 Poincaré 1908

15 19 th century Romanticism e.g. the genius, ( mad, bad and dangerous!) e.g. baggage about creativity being a god-given talent which you either have or haven’t got the idea of the individual creative genius still resonates today e.g. the myth of the maverick, unpredictable and dangerous creative person.

16 widening of the methodological horizon Historiometric approach (Simonton) Case Studies (Gruber & Wallace, Policastro & Gardner) Systems Model (Czikszentmihalyi) Neuroscience (Katz, Martindale) Cognitive & Computer Modelling (Boden, Finke) Sociology Education Management Business Studies 1950s 1980s Freud 1907 Wallas 1926 Poincaré 1908 Guilford 1950 Psychology focus on the individual, dispositonal perspective, testing (e.g. TCT, psychometric), divergent/ convergent thinking etc. Psychology focus on the individual, dispositonal perspective, testing (e.g. TCT, psychometric), divergent/ convergent thinking etc.

17 d e f i n i t i o n s

18 All the research [into creativity] starts from either ambiguous definitions or, in some cases, no definition at all - the assumption being, I guess, that everyone knows what creativity means, or that any definition will do. (Gotz, 1981) All the research [into creativity] starts from either ambiguous definitions or, in some cases, no definition at all - the assumption being, I guess, that everyone knows what creativity means, or that any definition will do. (Gotz, 1981) Creativity ‘health’ warning

19 A creative idea is one that is both original and appropriate for the situation in which it occurs. (Martindale, 1999) A creative idea is one that is both original and appropriate for the situation in which it occurs. (Martindale, 1999) What do we mean by creative work? Like most definitions of creativity, ours involves novelty and value. The product must be new and must be given value according to some external criteria. (Gruber & Wallace, 1999) What do we mean by creative work? Like most definitions of creativity, ours involves novelty and value. The product must be new and must be given value according to some external criteria. (Gruber & Wallace, 1999) Creativity from a Western perspective can be defined as the ability to produce work that is novel and appropriate. (Lubart, 1999) Creativity from a Western perspective can be defined as the ability to produce work that is novel and appropriate. (Lubart, 1999) Creativity is the generation of ideas that are both novel and valuable. ( Boden, 1999) Creativity is the generation of ideas that are both novel and valuable. ( Boden, 1999) Creativity is imaginative activity fashioned so as to produce outcomes that are both original and of value. (Robinson, 1999) Creativity is imaginative activity fashioned so as to produce outcomes that are both original and of value. (Robinson, 1999) Creativity constructs new tools and new outcomes – new embodiments of knowledge. It constructs new relationships, rules, communities of practice and new connections – new social practices (Knight, 2002) Creativity constructs new tools and new outcomes – new embodiments of knowledge. It constructs new relationships, rules, communities of practice and new connections – new social practices (Knight, 2002) d e f i n i t i o n s

20 s o m e m o d e l s

21 Preparation Incubation Illumination Verification Wallas stage model Amabile 1993 Componential Model of Creativity Skill in Creative Thinking Skill in the Task Domain Intrinsic Motivation CULTURE Domain Field SOCIETY Individual PERSONAL BACKGROUND Stimulates novelty Transmits information Selects novelty Produces novelty Czikszentmihalyi 1988 Systems Model of Creativity p r o c e s s ASSESSMENT ✔ ASSESSMENT ✔ ASSESSMENT ✔

22 operating on the edge of chaos STASIS Close to certainty Close to agreement Far from agreement Far from certainty (Based on Stacey 2000) ZOO - zone of optimal operation CHAO S Edge of Chaos – tension AND creativity ASSESSMENT ✔ ASSESSMENT ?

23 REPLICATION ORIGINATION FORMULATION INNOVATION T H E C R E A T I V E C O N T I N U U M Based on Fennell, E., (1993) Categorising Creativity in Competence & Assessment No. 23, Oct. 1993, Employment Dept. ASSESSMENT ✔ ASSESSMENT ?

24 D u a l i s m R e l a t i v i s m R e p r o d u c t i o n Seeking meaning Teacher centred Content oriented Student centred Learning oriented Conceptions of Teaching Conceptions of Learning Conceptions of Knowledge Imparting information Transmitting structured knowledge Directing active learning Facilitating understanding Encouraging conceptual change Acquiring information Applying knowledge Reflecting and understanding Memorising strategically Seeing things in a different way Knowledge as ‘given’ Knowledge as multiple and equal Knowledge as provisional Knowledge used to reason among alternatives Knowledge used for self- actualisation Transformation Threshold Adapted from: Entwistle, N & Peterson, E. (2004) Conceptions of learning and knoweldge in higher education. International Journal of Educational Research Volume 41(6):

25 REPLICATION ORIGINATION FORMULATION INNOVATION STASIS CHAO S D u a l i s m R e l a t i v i s m R e p r o d u c t i o n Seeking meaning Teacher centred Content oriented Student centred Learning oriented Conceptions of Teaching Conceptions of Learning Conceptions of Knowledge Imparting information Transmitting structured knowledge Directing active learning Facilitating understanding Encouraging conceptual change Acquiring information Applying knowledge Reflecting and understanding Memorising strategically Seeing things in a different way Knowledge as ‘given’ Knowledge as multiple and equal Knowledge as provisional Knowledge used to reason among alternatives Knowledge used for self- actualisation Transformation Threshold

26 as the creation of something new and original as the creation of something new and original that has value and utility as a process leading to an explicit or tangible outcome as a process leading to an implicit or intangible outcome as a process not linked to any outcome (implicit or explicit) as the purposeful exploitation of chance occurrences as disorientation and encountering the unexpected as the desire and the ability to engage in change as personal / professional fulfilment as fundamental or incremental change as a reaction or resistance to conformity, orthodoxy and compliance as engagement in risk-taking as suspended as constrained as making new connections PROCESS PRODUCT TRANSFORMATION CONSTRAINT / RESISTANCE as freedom or opportunity FREEDOM & FULFILMENT conceptions of creativity in learning & teaching

27 ● a constraint-focused experience ● a process-focused experience ● a product-focused experience ● a transformation-focused experience c r e a t i v i t y c o n c e i v e d a s..... conceptions of creativity in learning & teaching

28 TRANSFORMATION PROCESS STASIS conceptions of creativity in learning & teaching

29 TRANSFORMATION PROCESS STASIS Confidence Autonomy Risk-taking Exploiting chance No Change Constraints Frustrations Verification Change Low High Excitement Producing/testing outcomes (Anxiety) Isolation Shared experience Motivation Affirmation RecognitionSatisfaction Pride Pleasure Shared experience and achievement C h a n g i n g Engaging with the ‘new’ conceptions of creativity in learning & teaching

30 STASIS Process Threshold Imparting information Transmitting structured knowledge Directing active learning Facilitating understanding Acquiring information Applying knowledge Knowledge as ‘given’ Knowledge as multiple and equal Knowledge as provisional Knowledge used to reason among alternatives Reflecting and understanding D u a l i s m R e l a t i v i s m R e p r o d u c i n g Seeking meaning teacher centred content oriented student centred learning oriented Close to certainty Far from agreement Far from certainty Close to agreement Zone of Complexity Simple Complicated Complex Chaotic Transformation Chaos E d g e o f C h a o s Encouraging conceptual change Seeing things in a different way Knowledge used for self- actualisation Conceptions of Teaching Conceptions of Learning Conceptions of Knowledge Low confidence and autonomy (for creativity) High confidence and autonomy (for creativity) Memorising strategically © P a u l K l e i m a n

31 a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e p r a c t i c e

32 some concerns / challenges Assessment not fit for purpose Assessment landscape has changed / is changing Students as agents not objects of assessment Assessment for learning Assessment informed teaching rather than teaching informed assessment Constructive alignment Which paradigm? a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e p r a c t i c e

33 The complex and multidimensional nature of creativity cannot be captured effectively and comprehensively by any single instrument or analytical procedure. The complex and multidimensional nature of creativity cannot be captured effectively and comprehensively by any single instrument or analytical procedure. The use of multiple methods reflects an attempt to secure an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon in question. However….. Creativity ‘health’ warning

34 Helping to remove creativity from the realm of mystery and superstition Helping students to recognise their own strengths and talents; enabling people to know and understand themselves better Expanding students’ risk-taking parameters Helping teachers to discover unrecognized or untapped potential/talent Helping to remove creativity from the realm of mystery and superstition Helping students to recognise their own strengths and talents; enabling people to know and understand themselves better Expanding students’ risk-taking parameters Helping teachers to discover unrecognized or untapped potential/talent From Balchin, T. (2005) Assessing Students' Creativity: Lessons from Research w h y a s s e s s c r e a t i v i t y ?

35 Highlighting current educational problems such as ‘marking to the assessment criteria’. ( Consistent gaps between a high score in hitting assessment criteria yet low creativity tell their own stories). Providing a common language for communication among professionals about the nature of creative abilities and skills; Giving a boost to students who tend to fall outside society’s norm behavioral standards and are judged badly as a result of poor academic work; Highlighting current educational problems such as ‘marking to the assessment criteria’. ( Consistent gaps between a high score in hitting assessment criteria yet low creativity tell their own stories). Providing a common language for communication among professionals about the nature of creative abilities and skills; Giving a boost to students who tend to fall outside society’s norm behavioral standards and are judged badly as a result of poor academic work; w h y a s s e s s c r e a t i v i t y ? From Balchin, T. (2005) Assessing Students' Creativity: Lessons from Research

36 a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e p r a c t i c e from TRIANGULATION to CRYSTALLISATION Assessment as a form of qualitative enquiry A B C P ✔

37 which paradigm? Positivist Aim Explanation, control Knowledge Objective, measurable, value- free, universal, generalisable Researcher Expert, independent Criteria Rigour via ‘holy trinity’ of validity, reliability and generalisability There’s a reality ‘out there’ that can be studied, captured and understood Interpretive Aim Understanding Knowledge Subjective, contextualised, value-dependent, multiple-realities Researcher Independent participant Criteria ‘Rigour’ (?) via credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability ‘Truth’ is a matter of consensus amongst informed and sophisticated constructors, not of correspondence with an objective reality. A B C P ✔

38 Case Study reports Dissertations Essays Examinations – unseen, seen, open-book, etc. Group projects or assignments Individual projects or assignments Multiple Choice Peer and/or Self assessments Performances – individual, group Portfolios Presentations – oral, poster, etc. Reflective Journals Reports Viva/Interview Habeshaw, Gibbs, & Habeshaw (1993) list 48 discrete items [e.g. project exam, note-form essay, computer-based assessment] which assessment?

39 the problem The more assessment involves qualitative information, the more subjectivity is involved Stricter assessment criteria + more structured and proscribed content = improved reliability BUT….. above would “obliterate the essence of qualitative assessment in terms of flexibility, personal orientation and authenticity”. Driessen et al (2005) Medical Education 39: 214–220

40 Ad sedere / to sit down together "You've got to involve students actively, not just view them as objects of assessment, but as agents of assessment. This can be done in many ways. One is that you ask students systematically what they have learned. It's a simple idea; it's rarely done.....You find that students say some remarkable things.” Walt Haney, Professor of Education, Center for the Study of Testing, Evaluation and Educational Policy, Boston, USA. negotiating assessment a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e p r a c t i c e

41 Some underpinning ideas… Students engaged in creative practice work at different levels AND different ways The products they create will be different, as will the processes and methods utilised, and the disciplines they represent That assessment should operate and be perceived as an integral part of the learning process rather than 'bolted-on' to the end of that process. That the form, content and implementation of the assessment process should be commensurable with the discourse and practices of the field negotiating assessment a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e p r a c t i c e

42 Six assessment fields: Presentation/Production i.e. the finished product presented to an audience Process i.e. the journey that led to the product Idea i.e. the ideas that informed both the process and the product. Technical i.e. the quality and utility of the technical features of the product and the skills with which they were assembled and/or operated Documentation i.e. research, design, sketches, planning, evaluation, analyses, portfolio, etc. Interview i.e. the student's ability to articulate their understanding, utilisation and application and use of any of the above. negotiating assessment

43 Learning contract – negotiated Regular meetings/tutorials Assessors see the performance/presentation + student compiles ‘portfolio of evidence’ Assessment tutorial c. 30 min; individual / group + at least 2 assessors Work through the criteria - moving upwards Reach a point of maximum information, optimal achievement Agree a grade band Sense of ‘completeness’, ‘accomplishment A learning experience for all concerned negotiating assessment

44 Discussion, Questions, Sharing of ideas and experiences p. k l e i m a l a n c a s t e r. a c. u k © P a u l K l e i m a n October


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