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+ What Went Wrong? How and why did public opinion about Prohibition change?

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Presentation on theme: "+ What Went Wrong? How and why did public opinion about Prohibition change?"— Presentation transcript:

1 + What Went Wrong? How and why did public opinion about Prohibition change?

2 + Prohibition – The Noble Experiment The goals of prohibition were to decrease: drunkenness and the negative impact this had on the family political corruption domestic abuse poverty What really happened?

3 + Some interesting statistics during Prohibition…. Police funding: INCREASED $11.4 million Arrests for Prohibition Violations: INCREASED 102% Arrest for Drunkenness and Disorderly Conduct: INCREASED 41% Arrests of Drunken Drivers: INCREASED 81% Thefts and Burglaries: INCREASED 9% Homicides, Assault, and Battery: INCREASED 13% Number of Federal Convicts: INCREASED 561% Federal Prison Population: INCREASED 366% Total Federal Expenditures on Penal Institutions: INCREASED 1,000%

4 + What went wrong? Home made alcohol, called ‘bootleg liquor,’ was being produced and distributed illegally in ‘speakeasys’ by organized crime gangsters like Al Capone and Bugsy Malone, who fought for control over large areas of “territory” in major cities. " All I do is to supply a public demand … somebody had to throw some liquor on that thirst. Why not me?” -Al Capone, 1925

5 + The rise of organized crime Gangsters controlled the speak- easys, gambling houses, and prostitution rings. This led to an increase in crime and violence. In one year in Chicago, there were over 400 gang related murders The most famous gang related shooting occurred on St. Valentine’s Day, 1929, in the streets of Chicago. Two gangs – the South Side Italian gang, led by Al Capone, and the North Side Irish gang, led by Bugsy Malone - battled over control of the bootleg business in the city. Members of the Malone gang were lined up against the wall of a garage and shot. St. Valentine’s Day Massacre, 1929 Members of the Malone gang

6 + Corruption The government did not adequately fund and staff the law enforcement agencies responsible for enforcing this law. Police, judges, and politicians were often times on the “payroll” of the local gang and would not use their authority to enforce the laws Al Capone with Chicago Chief of Police,

7 + What were some journalists saying? “Five years of prohibition …have completely disposed of all the favorite arguments of the Prohibitionists… There is not less drunkenness in the Republic but more. There is not less crime, but more. There is not less insanity, but more. The cost of government is not smaller, but vastly greater. Respect for law has not increased, but diminished.” Journalist H. L. Mencken wrote in 1925 Chicago speakeasy 1925

8 + What were some women saying? “In pre-prohibition days, mothers had little fear in regard to the saloon as far as their children were concerned. A saloon-keeper’s license was revoked if he was caught selling liquor to minors. Today in any speakeasy in the United States you can find boys and girls in their teens drinking liquor and this situation has become so acute that the mothers of the country feel something must be done to protect their children.” A former temperance supporter testifies before Congress: Pauline Sabin

9 + The Wickersham Commission studies the effect of Prohibition on law and order "Intoxicating liquor is readily obtainable in every city of consequence in the country.... If the law is not enforceable in cities [where dwell 40% of U. S. population] it cannot be considered enforceable as a national instrument.... I cannot find any reasonable ground for the expectation that public sentiment, especially in urban districts, can be changed to the extent necessary... Repeal is the only consistent alternative." Report of the National Commission on Law Observance and Law Enforcement, 1931 George W. Wickersham was appointed by President Hoover to look into the effectiveness of law enforcement with Prohibition

10 + What about politicians? Because of the increase in crime and rise in public discontent, the Democratic platform included the repeal of prohibition with candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt decrying, “The damnable affliction of Prohibition.” The poll of people for and against repeal of the 18 th amendment in 1932: 74% for 26% opposed 1932 Presidential ElectionFDR at Democratic Convention

11 + The 18 th Amendment is repealed The 21 st Amendment Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Ratified December 5, 1933 Supporters of the 21 st Amendment

12 + What happened to…? In 1931 Capone was indicted for income tax evasion and various violations of the Volstead Act (Prohibition) Tried to bride potential jurors The judge sentenced him to 11 years imprisonment Capone's control and interests within organized crime diminished rapidly after his imprisonment Al Capone

13 + What happened to…? Then on January 26, 1947 OBITUARY Capone Dead At 48; Dry Era Gang Chief MIAMI BEACH, FLA., Jan Al Capone, ex-Chicago gangster and prohibition era crime leader, died in his home here tonight. "Death came very suddenly," said Dr. Kenneth S. Phillips, who has been attending Capone since he was stricken with apoplexy Tuesday. "All the family was present. His wife, Mae, collapsed and is in very serious condition." Dr. Phillips said death was caused by heart failure Al Capone

14 + What happened to…? In July 1946, Moran was arrested in Ohio for robbing a bank messenger of $10,000. Convicted and sentenced to ten years in the Ohio Penitentiary. Shortly after his release, Moran was again arrested for a bank robbery that occurred in Ansonia, Ohio on November 8, Moran received another ten years and was sent to the Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary on January 11, On February 25, 1957, he died of lung cancer, aged 65. “Bugs” Moran

15 + What happened to…? Luciano was sentenced to 30 to 50 years in state prison During World War II, the U.S. government struck a secret deal with the imprisoned Luciano. U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence was concerned about German and Italian agents entering the United States through the New York waterfront. Knowing that The Mafia controlled the waterfront, the Navy contacted Luciano about a deal. The Navy, the State of New York and Luciano eventually concluded a deal. Luciano promised the complete assistance of his organization in providing intelligence to the Navy. Promised no dockworker strikes during war. In preparation for the 1943 allied invasion of Sicily, Luciano allegedly provided the U.S. military with mafia contacts in Sicily “Lucky” Luciano Released but was to be DEPORTED back to Italy *Hurt him – US considered his home country In the 30s, Lucky was arrested on charges of running a prostitution ring

16 + What happened to…? Moved to Cuba – to be closer to the United States so that he could resume control over American Mafia operations and eventually return to the United States On January 26, 1962, Luciano died of a heart attack at Naples International Airport. Luciano had gone to the airport to meet with American producer Martin Gosch about a film biography (semi-fictional). Luciano was unaware that Italian drug agents had followed him to the airport in anticipation of arresting him on drug smuggling charges “Lucky” Luciano

17 + Other things were happening in the 1920s besides Organized Crime and Prohibition

18 + What went wrong? How and why did public opinion about Prohibition change?

19 + Prohibition – The Noble Experiment The goals of prohibition were to decrease: drunkenness and the negative impact this had on the family political corruption domestic abuse poverty What really happened?

20 + Some interesting statistics during Prohibition…. Police funding: INCREASED $11.4 million Arrests for Prohibition Violations: INCREASED 102% Arrest for Drunkenness and Disorderly Conduct: INCREASED 41% Arrests of Drunken Drivers: INCREASED 81% Thefts and Burglaries: INCREASED 9% Homicides, Assault, and Battery: INCREASED 13% Number of Federal Convicts: INCREASED 561% Federal Prison Population: INCREASED 366% Total Federal Expenditures on Penal Institutions: INCREASED 1,000%

21 + What went wrong? Home made alcohol, called ‘bootleg liquor,’ was being produced and distributed illegally in ‘speakeasys’ by organized crime gangsters like Al Capone and Bugsy Malone, who fought for control over large areas of “territory” in major cities. "All I do is to supply a public demand … somebody had to throw some liquor on that thirst. Why not me?” -Al Capone, 1925

22 + The rise of _____________________ Gangsters controlled the speak- easys, gambling houses, and prostitution rings. This led to an increase in crime and violence. In one year in Chicago, there were over 400 gang related murders The most famous gang related shooting occurred on St. Valentine’s Day, 1929, in the streets of Chicago. Two gangs – the South Side Italian gang, led by Al Capone, and the North Side Irish gang, led by Bugsy Malone - battled over control of the bootleg business in the city. Members of the Malone gang were lined up against the wall of a garage and shot. St. Valentine’s Day Massacre, 1929 Members of the Malone gang

23 + _________________ The government did not adequately fund and staff the law enforcement agencies responsible for enforcing this law. Police, judges, and politicians were often times on the “payroll” of the local gang and would not use their authority to enforce the laws Al Capone with Chicago Chief of Police, Stege:www.umich.edu/~eng217/student_projects /nkazmers/thelaw1.html

24 + What were some journalists saying? “Five years of prohibition …have completely disposed of all the favorite arguments of the Prohibitionists… There is not less drunkenness in the Republic but ___________. There is not less crime, but ______________. There is not less insanity, but __________. The cost of government is not smaller, but vastly greater. Respect for law has not increased, but _______________________.” Journalist H. L. Mencken wrote in 1925 Chicago speakeasy 1925

25 + What were some women saying? “In pre-prohibition days, mothers had little fear in regard to the saloon as far as their ______________ were concerned. A saloon-keeper’s license was __________________ if he was caught selling liquor to minors. Today in any speakeasy in the United States you can find boys and girls in their teens drinking liquor and this situation has become so acute that the mothers of the country feel something must be done to protect their children.” A former temperance supporter testifies before Congress: Pauline Sabin

26 + The Wickersham Commission studies the effect of Prohibition on law and order "Intoxicating liquor is readily obtainable in every city of consequence in the country.... If the law is not enforceable in _____________ [where dwell 40% of U. S. population] it cannot be considered enforceable as a national instrument.... I cannot find any reasonable ground for the expectation that public sentiment, especially in urban districts, can be changed to the extent necessary.... ________________ is the only consistent alternative." Report of the National Commission on Law Observance and Law Enforcement, 1931 George W. Wickersham was appointed by President Hoover to look into the effectiveness of law enforcement with Prohibition

27 + What about politicians? Because of the increase in crime and rise in public discontent, the Democratic platform included the repeal of prohibition with candidate _____________________________ decrying, “The damnable affliction of Prohibition.” The poll of people for and against repeal (cancel, revoke) of the 18 th amendment in 1932: _____% for _____% opposed 1932 Presidential ElectionFDR at Democratic Convention

28 + The 18 th Amendment is repealed The____________Amendment Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Ratified December 5, 1933 Supporters of the 21 st Amendment


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