Presentation on theme: "1 SEWERAGE SYSTEMS Visual inspection of sewers Michel FAVIER Technical Sales Department January 2003."— Presentation transcript:
1 SEWERAGE SYSTEMS Visual inspection of sewers Michel FAVIER Technical Sales Department January 2003
2 Visual inspection The different condition aspects Water tightness: - infiltration - ingress of sand - longitudinal displacement - radial displacement - angular displacement - intruding rubber gasket ring - intruding sealing material
3 Visual inspection INFILTRATION Infiltration means the ingress of ground water through joints, cracks or inlets or through the pipe wall (if the sewer is wholly or partly in the ground water). - ground water drips into the sewer. - ground water flows into the sewer. - ground water gushes or flows into the sewer inlarge quantities.
4 Visual inspection Infiltration (from the outside inwards)
5 Visual inspection Infiltration
6 Visual inspection Infiltration
7 Visual inspection Infiltration
8 Visual inspection INGRESS of SAND Ingress of sand means the intrusion of sans through pipe connection or cracks. The degree to which sand intrudes depends on quantity of sand entering the sewer per unit of time. This quantity per unit of time is often difficult to measure because: - on visual inspection, only a momentary picture is obtained. - the water flow removes all or part the intruded sand.
9 Visual inspection Ingrees of sand
10 Visual inspection Ingress of sand
11 Visual inspection Ingress of sand
12 Visual inspection Ingress of sand
13 Visual inspection LONGITUDINAL DISPLACEMENT Longitudinal displacement means a uniform displacement of two pipes from one another along the axis of pipes. Sometimes the connection between two pipes is then interrupted.
20 Visual inspection RADIAL DISPLACEMENT Radial displacement is the displacement of two pipes in relation to each other perpendicular to the axis of the pipes. Sometimes radial displacement means that the socket or spigot is broken.
21 Visual inspection Radial displacement
22 Visual inspection ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT Angular displacement refers to a divergence in line of pipes from one another along the axis of the adjoining pipe. This divergence may occur both horizontally and vertically. The permissible angular deflection depends of the dimensions of pipes with a socket-and-spigot.
24 Visual inspection INTRUDING RUBBER RING An intruding rubber ring means a visible, intact rubber ring or broken ring partly hanging into the cross section of the sewer.
25 Visual inspection Visible rubber ring
26 Visual inspection Intruding rubber ring
27 Visual inspection INTRUDING SEALING MATERIAL Intruding sealing material means sealing material (sealant or bituminus sealing strip) sagging out or squeezed from the joint in the cross-section of the sewer.
28 Visual inspection Intruding sealing material
29 Visual inspection Intruding sealing material
30 Visual inspection Intruding sealing material
31 Visual inspection SURFACE DAMAGE Surface damage means damage to the surface caused during manufacture, transport or laying of the sewer or resulting from works on or around the sewer.
32 Visual inspection Surface damage
33 Visual inspection ATTACK Attack means a reduction of pipe wall over of use as a result of chemical, bio-chemical or mechanical processes. Concrete: - no grit visible - grit visible - reinforcement possibly visible and rusted PVC: - no or degradations noted NB. Resistance of collapse cannot be observed visually.
37 Visual inspection CRACKS Cracks means a complex of cracks, fractures and / or broken parts. Type of cracks: - hair cracks - non-open cracks - open cracks - parts of the pipe displaced or collapsed
38 Visual inspection Cracks
39 Visual inspection Cracks
40 Visual inspection DEFORMATION Deformation means an alteration in the cross- section / diameter in relation to the original cross-section / diameter. The degree of deformation is expressed as a percentage of the original cross-section / diameter. Where deformation varies, the maximum deformation is taken.
41 Visual inspection Deformation
42 Visual inspection INTRUDING CONNECTION An intruding connection means a lateral of service connection pipe from any building or gully pit, projecting into the sewer.
43 Visual inspection Intruding connection
44 Visual inspection INGRESS OF ROOTS Ingress of roots means roots from trees or plants growing into the sewer through joints, cracks or connections fom buildings and gullies. NB. Roots penetration occurs only in sewers laying partly or above the ground water level.
45 Visual inspection Ingres of roots
46 Visual inspection Ingress of roots
47 Visual inspection FOULING Fouling means the collection of organisms which are become attached to the pipe wall or hang it in strings threads.
48 Visual inspection Fouling
49 Visual inspection Fouling
50 Visual inspection SCALE Scale means the depositing of silt, grease and lime cake on the pipe wall. This condition aspect also includes encrustation and deposits of soil material (other than sand) around a pipe connection or cracks.
51 Visual inspection Scale
52 Visual inspection scale
53 Visual inspection ACCUMULATION OF SAND AND DEBRIS Accumulation of sand and debris refers to accumulated material having a loose struture.
54 Visual inspection Accumulation of sand and debris
55 Visual inspection Accumulation of sand and debris
56 Visual inspection OBSTACLES Obstacles refers to objects in the sewer without any function for the sewer system and which are not part of ordinary sewage flow. Examples of obstacles in the sewer are: - dislodged bricks - unremoved shuttering - branches and wood - collapse of the sewer
57 Visual inspection Obstacles
58 Visual inspection Obstacles
59 Visual inspection WATER DEPTH Water depth means the water level in relation to the bottom of the pipe. This water stagnates into the sewer ( for example in a low point).
60 Visual inspection Water depth
61 Visual inspection Water depth
62 Visual inspection ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS Before to start an inspection, identification and inventorisation data must be available. Such as: - the name of the local authority - name of street and district - the numbers of the the manhole chambers and the direction of wich inspection is made - inspection date - the material of the pipes - the type and position of connection pipes NB. It is useful to have drawings available during inspection