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COLD WAR. ROOTS OF THE COLD WAR IDEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES The Soviet Union was Communist; the U.S. was a Democracy based on the free enterprise system.

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Presentation on theme: "COLD WAR. ROOTS OF THE COLD WAR IDEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES The Soviet Union was Communist; the U.S. was a Democracy based on the free enterprise system."— Presentation transcript:

1 COLD WAR

2 ROOTS OF THE COLD WAR IDEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES The Soviet Union was Communist; the U.S. was a Democracy based on the free enterprise system. SOVIET OCCUPATION OF EASTERN EUROPE The Soviet army occupied Eastern Europe at the end of WWII and set up local Communist governments IRON CURTAIN The Soviets cut-off Eastern Europe from Western Europe. *Division of Germany (into West and East) *Berlin Airlift. Soviets blockaded Berlin; U.S. sent in supplies; Soviets end blockade

3 ATTEMPTS AT CONTAINMENT IN THE COLD WAR TRUMAN DOCITRINE, 1947: Sought to help Greece and Turkey; doctrine promised U.S. assistance to all free peoples resisting Communism MARSHALL PLAN, 1948: U.S. gave economic aid to reduce the appeal of Communism CREATION OF NATO: Alliance of U.S., Canada, and Western Europe. Members pledged a common defense against aggression WARSAW PACT Pact of Soviet satellites created to counter the threat of NATO

4 KOREAN WAR ( ) CAUSE Communist North Korea invaded South Korea to reunify the country. HIGHLIGHTS: U.S. enters war under U.N. resolution to defend South Korea *MacArthur’s landing at Inchon in North Korea turned tide; fearing invasion, China entered the war. *War ended in a stalemate, as borders remained the same as before the war *Truman-MacArthur Controversy Truman dismissed General MacArthur for wanting to use atomic weapons against Communist China and for openly criticizing the President.

5 ARMS AND SPACE RACE MASSIVE RETALIATION. U.S. tries to rely mainly on nuclear weapons for defense * DETERRENT. Destructiveness of nuclear arms to act as deterrent to attack COLD WAR AND AMERICAN SECURITY SPUTNIK (1957) Soviet launch of satellite sets off space race HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMISSION (HUAC) looking for Soviet spies and Communists in America JULIUS AND ETHEL ROSENBERG (executed as Soviet spies) VERNONA PAPERS. Confirm the existence of some spies in American govenment McCARTHY HEARINGS: “McCarthyism”—accuses U.S. Army

6 TRUMAN AND EISENHOWER ( ) TRUMAN PRESIDENCY Executive order to desegregate armed forces and end unfair hiring practices for federal jobs (1948) DOMESTIC POLICY DEVELOPMENTS *HOUSING BOOM, GI BILL provided loans to help returning veterans buy new homes and attend college *Period of economic prosperity *Move to suburbs by many Americans FOREIGN POLICY DEVELOPMENTS *EISENHOWER DOCTRINE Extended U.S. containment policy into the Middle East

7 KENNEDY AND JOHNSON PRESIDENCIES JOHN F. KENNEDY ( ) *SPACE RACE: sent John Glenn into space * Peace Corps *Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961) *Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) LYNDON B. JOHNSON ( ) *Great Society programs -Civil Right Act of Medicare Act of War on Poverty and aid to the cities *Change in immigration policy (Immigration Act of 1965) fair quota system *Vietnam War SPACE RACE. Armstrong and Aldrin Land on Moon (1969)

8 VIETNAM WAR CAUSES *We enter to help France so that they will join NATO. *Fighting North Vietnamese who have help from Vietcong *We stay after French leave because of Domino Theory one nation falling to Communism will cause more… HIGHLIGHTS *GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION (1964)— ground troops *TET Offensive (1968)—Psychological turning point *U.S. Withdraw(1973) *Fall of Saigon (1975) IMPACT *Large number of U.S. casualties *Distrust of American leaders (Pentagon Papers show Americans were misled) *War Protest *Led to passing War Powers Act

9 RICHARD NIXON, IMPERIAL PRESIDENCY Growth in Presidential powers DOMESTIC POLICY *Created ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY *Endangered Species Act (1973) *Equal Rights Amendment fails—Phyllis Schlafly =critic of ERA *Vice President Agnew resigns—Ford appointed FOREIGN POLICY *reopened relations with Red China (1972) *Followed détente (easing tensions) with Soviet Union WATERGATE CRISIS (1972) *Bugging of Democratic National Headquarters *Nixon claimed executive privilege *WATERGATE TAPES revealed the President’s role *Resigned rather than go through impeachment

10 GERALD FORD, Only President appointed, not elected JIMMY CARTER, Pardoned Nixon (unpopular decision) STAGFLATION = Inflation and unemployment Created Department of Energy COMMUNITY Reinvestment Act (1973) money to poor inner city Seeks morality in foreign policy HELSINKI Accords (1975) recognized post-WWII borders/respect for human rights OPEC Oil Boycott (1973) over policy with Israel IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS (1979)—Americans held 444 days CAMP DAVID ACCORDS— Israel and Egypt treaty PANAMA CANAL TREATY—return zone to Panama

11 RONALD REAGAN, REAGANOMICS *Reversed trend of large government *Supply-side economics to end stagflation *Deregulation of many industries *Tax cuts and cuts in domestic spending SANDRA DAY O’CONNOR first woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court (1981) PEOPLE FLEE THE RUST BELT FOR THE SUN BELT IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR Negotiated with Iran to free hostages in Lebanon. Sold arms to Contras (fighting Communism) TOLD SOVIETS TO “TAKE DOWN THIS WALL”--BERLIN

12 GEORGE H.W. BUSH, DOMESTIC POLICY *Faced a growing budget deficit *Civil unrest after Rodney King beating trial—LA riots *AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT, 1990 FOREIGN POLCIY *COLD WAR ENDS—Soviet Union dissolves *Invasion of PANAMA—ousting Manuel Noriega *BERLIN WALL TAKEN DOWN (1989) *PERSIAN GULF WAR : U.S. Forces sent to stop invasion of Kuwait by Iraq *Somalia: Humanitarian airlift of food/supplies; troops sent to insure delivery


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