In 1946, Winston Churchill warned the Americans against the dangers of communism: -March 1946 Fulton -Iron Curtain speech 1-Introduce the document 2-Who is Churchill? 3-What was the Iron curtain? 4- Why are the East side and the West side drawn differently?
B/ The American intervention in post-war Europe… 1) The Truman doctrine… The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”. No “Roll back” at first It signalled the end of “isolationist” policies. Roosevelt’s vice-president
1-Identify the source 2-What does Truman mean when he refers to « violation of the Yalta agreement »? 3-What are according to him the two alternative ways of life in the world in 1945. Explain them. 4-Why does he suggest economic intervention? 5- Is this document biased?
2) The Marshall Plan was the economic extension of this doctrine -Containment / European Recovery Program through the OEEC 1948 -Marshall was secretary of state 1-Introduce the Document 2-Describe this poster 3-Why was this economic help needed? 4-Weren’t any political motives behind the Marshall Plan?
3) NATO was the military alliance of the West 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization Aimed at defending against communist aggression
C/ The Soviet reply 1) The Jdanov doctrine His doctrine denounced the Americans as imperialist while presenting the USSR as anti-imperialist and pro democracy Head of the ministry of propaganda and culture
2) The COMECON Reply to Marshall Plan 1949 part of the Molotov plan Offered economic aid to Soviet « satellites » (people’s democracies) and help to co-ordinate their economic policies
3) The KOMINFORM Reply to Marshall Plan 1949 To draw together European communist parties to make sure they respected guidelines provided by the CPSU
4) The WARSAW PACT Reply to NATO 1955 To prevent any Western attack CONSEQUENCE
D/ The USSR tightened its grip on Eastern Europe 1-Introduce the document 2-How is Western Europe depicted? 3-What does the bear symbolize? SOME USEFUL DATES: When the countries became people’s democracies -Bulgaria1946 -Albania1946 -Poland 1947 -Romania1947 -Czechoslovakia1948 -Hungary1949
Conclusion 1949 Bipolar World Balance of terror Arm race LOTS OF CRISIS … see next lectures !