27.2.4Discuss the expansion of Muslim rule through military conquests and treaties, emphasizing the cultural blending within Muslim civilization and the spread and acceptance of Islam and the Arabic language.
3Background KnowledgeBy the time Muhammad died, most people on the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.Expansion of Islam and Muslim ruleIslam in the world today
4Muslim Expansion The first was a wave of conquests by Arab armies. The second was a series of conquests by non-Arab groups that had adopted Islam.the conquered or converted peoplesThe final phase was the peaceful spread of Islam by merchants and missionaries.
6a new leader to win back the loyalty of Arab tribes who had broken away.Abu Bakr, was given the title of caliph, or successorregain control of the Arabian Peninsula
7The next caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Syria. Then, Persia and Egypt.
8Conquests continued under other caliphs Battle of Tours in 732 Afghanistan and India and across North Africa and into SpainBattle of Tours in 732100 years the Muslims had built an vast empire
9Reasons for Success The decline of the Byzantine and Persian empires. Years of warfare had left these empires weak and vulnerable.The skill of Arab armies.expert soldiers on horsebackstruck quickly and with deadly force in harsh desert environments
10Reasons for Successjihad, or “holy struggle.” striving hard in God’s cause. Sometimes it means a person’s internal struggle to live by Muslim principles. But it can also mean waging war to spread the Islamic faith.
11Religious ToleranceThe Arabs generally allowed people to practice their own customs and beliefs.the Torah and the Bible are sacred booksBefore capturing Damascus, the Arab general Khalid ibn al-Walid made the following promise:Jews and Christians were generally respected as “People of the Book.” did not have the same legal status, pay a special tax. But they were allowed to practice their own faith and follow their own laws.
12Religious ToleranceA final factor in the Muslims’ success was the appeal of Islam itself.Islam offered followers a direct path to God and salvation.It emphasized the equality of all believers, regardless of race, sex, class, or wealth.no priestly class monitoring people’s behavior.follow the Five Pillars.
13Conquests by Non-Arab Peoples The second phase, was a result of conquests by non-Arab peoplesConverts who took Islam back to their homelands and lands that they conqueredThe most successful of these groups were the Turks and the Mongols.
14Conquests by Non-Arab Peoples The Turks from Central Asian migrated into Muslim lands in the 900s.These fierce soldiers entered the service of Muslim armiesThe Seljuks, spread Islam into Central Asia.The Ottomans, created a large Muslim empire starting in the 1400s.conquered Constantinople and carried Islam into southeastern Europe
15Conquests by Non-Arab Peoples The Mongols swept into Muslim lands from Asia in the 1200s.After adopting Islam, they took Islam into Central Asia and western China.Muslim Mongols also invaded India and converted many Hindus to Islam.
16Merchants and Missionaries Southeast Asia, and West Africa experienced the third peaceful phase in the spread of IslamMuslim merchants they took their faith to new lands.traveled east from India by ship into Malaysia and Indonesiatraveled south in camel caravans from North Africa into the lands beyond the Sahara
17Merchants and Missionaries Missionaries often accompanied the traders to spread the word of God.They converted many Africans and Southeast Asians to Islam.
18Islam TodayThe spread of Islam is still going on today. Islam is the religion of many people around the world.
19The Growth of Modern Islam Islam is the world’s second-largest religion after Christianity.More than one billion peopleone fifth of the global populationfewer than 20 percent of Muslims are ArabsNearly half live in South and Southeast AsiaIndonesia has the largest Muslim populationfollowed by Pakistan, Bangladesh, and IndiaSeveral million Muslims live in the United States
20Divisions in IslamThe Sunnis are the majority Islamic sect, making up about 85 percent of all Muslims.The Shiites form the largest minority Islamic sect.
21Divisions in IslamSome religious differences separate the two groups, but the origins of the split are political.
22Divisions in IslamAfter Muhammad’s death, most Arabs believed that a caliph should be chosen by leaders of the Muslim community.This majority group, which supported Abu Bakr, became known as the Sunnis.Caliph is a leader, not a religious authority.
23Divisions in IslamSome followers, believed that only Muhammad’s relatives should become caliph.The Shiites, felt his relatives were inspired by God.They favored Muhammad’s cousin and closest relative, Ali ibn Abu Talib.Ali did become caliph later, but the split between Sunnis and Shiites continued.
24Divisions in IslamDespite this division, Muslims around the world are united in their basic beliefs. They worship one God. They revere the word of God as revealed to Muhammad in the Qur’an. And they accept the Five Pillars as guidelines to a proper life.