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What Would Plants Look Like On Alien Planets? Why Would They Look Different? Different Stars Give off Different types of light or Electromagnetic Waves.

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Presentation on theme: "What Would Plants Look Like On Alien Planets? Why Would They Look Different? Different Stars Give off Different types of light or Electromagnetic Waves."— Presentation transcript:

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3 What Would Plants Look Like On Alien Planets?

4 Why Would They Look Different? Different Stars Give off Different types of light or Electromagnetic Waves The color of plants depends on the spectrum of the star’s light, which astronomers can easily observe. (Our Sun is a type “G” star.)

5 Anatomy of a Wave Wavelength Is the distance between the crests of waves Determines the type of electromagnetic energy

6 Electromagnetic Spectrum Is the entire range of electromagnetic energy, or radiation The longer the wavelength the lower the energy associated with the wave.

7 Visible Light Light is a form of electromagnetic energy, which travels in waves When white light passes through a prism the individual wavelengths are separated out.

8 Visible Light Spectrum Light travels in waves Light is a form of radiant energy Radiant energy is made of tiny packets of energy called photons The red end of the spectrum has the lowest energy (longer wavelength) while the blue end is the highest energy (shorter wavelength). The order of visible light is ROY-G-BIV This is the same order you will see in a rainbow b/c water droplets in the air act as tiny prisms

9 Chloroplast – Where the Magic Happens! H2OH2OH2OH2O CO 2 O2O2O2O2 C 6 H 12 O 6 Light Reaction Dark Reaction Light is Adsorbed ByChlorophyll Which splits water Chloroplast ATP and NADPH 2 ADPNADP Calvin Cycle Energy Used Energy and is recycled. + + 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Light energy  C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2 O

10 Light Options When It Strikes A Leaf Reflect – a small amount of light is reflected off of the leaf. Most leaves reflect the color green, which means that it absorbs all of the other colors or wavelengths. Absorbed – most of the light is absorbed by plants providing the energy needed for the production of Glucose (photosynthesis) Transmitted – some light passes through the leaf Light Reflected Light Chloroplast Absorbed light Granum Transmitted light Figure 10.7

11 Photosynthesis Overview Photosynthesis includes of occur in occurs in uses to produce uses Light dependent reactions Thylakoid membranes StromaNADPH ATP Light Energy ATPNADPHO2O2 Chloroplasts Glucose Light independent reactions Concept Map

12 Anatomy of a Leaf Vein Leaf cross section Figure 10.3 Mesophyll CO 2 O2O2 Stomata

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14 Chloroplast

15 Mesophyll 5 µm Outer membrane Intermembrane space Inner membrane Thylakoid space Thylakoid Granum Stroma 1 µm Chloroplast Are located within the palisade layer of the leaf Stacks of membrane sacs called Thylakoids Contain pigments on the surface Pigments absorb certain wavelenghts of light A Stack of Thylakoids is called a Granum

16 Pigments Are molecules that absorb light Chlorophyll, a green pigment, is the primary absorber for photosynthesis There are two types of cholorophyll Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Carotenoids, yellow & orange pigments, are those that produce fall colors. Lots of Vitamin A for your eyes! Chlorophyll is so abundant that the other pigments are not visible so the plant is green…Then why do leaves change color in the fall?

17 Color Change In the fall when the temperature drops plants stop making Chrlorophyll and the Carotenoids and other pigments are left over (that’s why leaves change color in the fall).

18 The absorption spectra of three types of pigments in chloroplasts Three different experiments helped reveal which wavelengths of light are photosynthetically important. The results are shown below. EXPERIMENT RESULTS Absorption of light by chloroplast pigments Chlorophyll a (a) Absorption spectra. The three curves show the wavelengths of light best absorbed by three types of chloroplast pigments. Wavelength of light (nm) Chlorophyll b Carotenoids Figure 10.9

19 The action spectrum of a pigment Profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving photosynthesis Rate of photosynthesis (measured by O 2 release) Action spectrum. This graph plots the rate of photosynthesis versus wavelength. The resulting action spectrum resembles the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a but does not match exactly (see part a). This is partly due to the absorption of light by accessory pigments such as chlorophyll b and carotenoids. (b)

20 The action spectrum for photosynthesis Was first demonstrated by Theodor W. Engelmann 400 500600700 Aerobic bacteria Filament of alga Engelmann‘s experiment. In 1883, Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filamentous alga with light that had been passed through a prism, exposing different segments of the alga to different wavelengths. He used aerobic bacteria, which concentrate near an oxygen source, to determine which segments of the alga were releasing the most O 2 and thus photosynthesizing most. Bacteria congregated in greatest numbers around the parts of the alga illuminated with violet-blue or red light. Notice the close match of the bacterial distribution to the action spectrum in part b. (c) Light in the violet-blue and red portions of the spectrum are most effective in driving photosynthesis. CONCLUSION

21 Absorption of chlorophylls a and b at various wavelengths in the visible light spectrum

22 Pigment Molecules that absorb specific wavelengths of light Chlorophyll absorbs reds & blues and reflects green Xanthophyll absorbs red, blues, greens & reflects yellow Carotenoids reflect orange

23 Chlorophyll Green pigment in plants Traps sun’s energy Sunlight energizes electron in chlorophyll

24 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Comes from Greek Word “photo” meaning “Light” and “syntithenai” meaning “to put together” Photosynthesis puts together sugar molecules using water, carbon dioxide, & energy from light.

25 Happens in two phases Light-Dependent Reaction Converts light energy into chemical energy Light-Independent Reaction Produces simple sugars (glucose) General Equation 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2

26 First Phase Requires Light = Light Dependent Reaction Sun’s energy energizes an electron in chlorophyll molecule Electron is passed to nearby protein molecules in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast

27 Excitation of Chlorophyll by Light When a pigment absorbs light It goes from a ground state to an excited state, which is unstable Excited state Energy of election Heat Photon (fluorescence) Chlorophyll molecule Ground state Photon e–e– Figure 10.11 A

28  Photosystem II: Clusters of pigments boost e- by absorbing light w/ wavelength of ~680 nm  Photosystem I: Clusters boost e- by absorbing light w/ wavelength of ~760 nm.  Reaction Center: Both PS have it. Energy is passed to a special Chlorophyll a molecule which boosts an e-

29 A mechanical analogy for the light reactions Mill makes ATP e–e– e–e– e–e– e–e– e–e– Photon Photosystem II Photosystem I e–e– e–e– NADPH Photon Figure 10.14

30 ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Stores energy in high energy bonds between phosphates

31 NADPH Made from NADP+; electrons and hydrogen ions Made during light reaction Stores high energy electrons for use during light- Independent reaction (Calvin Cycle)

32 H2OH2O CO 2 Light LIGHT REACTIONS CALVIN CYCLE Chloroplast [CH 2 O] (sugar) NADPH NADP  ADP + P O2O2 Figure 10.5 ATP

33 PART II LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION Also called the Calvin Cycle No Light Required Takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast Takes carbon dioxide & converts into sugar It is a cycle because it ends with a chemical used in the first step

34 Begins & Ends The Calvin Cycle begins with the products of the light reaction. (the Calvin Cycle uses ATP & NADPH) CO2 is added and ends in the production of sugar (GLUCOSE) Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 Formula

35 The Calvin cycle (G3P) Input (Entering one at a time) CO 2 3 Rubisco Short-lived intermediate 3 PP P Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) P 3-Phosphoglycerate P6 P 6 1,3-Bisphoglycerate 6 NADPH 6 NADPH + 6 P P 6 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) 6 ATP 3 ATP 3 ADP CALVIN CYCLE P 5 P 1 G3P (a sugar) Output Light H2OH2O CO 2 LIGHT REACTION ATP NADPH NADP + ADP [CH 2 O] (sugar) CALVIN CYCLE Figure 10.18 O2O2 6 ADP Glucose and other organic compounds Phase 1: Carbon fixation Phase 2: Reduction Phase 3: Regeneration of the CO 2 acceptor (RuBP)

36 Chloroplast – Where the Magic Happens! H2OH2OH2OH2O CO 2 O2O2O2O2 C 6 H 12 O 6 Light Reaction Dark Reaction Light is Adsorbed ByChlorophyll Which splits water Chloroplast ATP and NADPH 2 ADPNADP Calvin Cycle Energy Used Energy and is recycled. + + 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Light energy  C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2 O

37 Cellular Respiration

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39 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Introduction to Cell Metabolism Glycolysis Aerobic Cell Respiration Anaerobic Cell Respiration

40 O2O2 CO 2 BREATHING Lungs CO 2 O2O2 Bloodstream Muscle cells carrying out CELLULAR RESPIRATION Sugar + O 2  ATP + CO 2 + H 2 O Breathing and Cell Respiration are related

41 GlucoseOxygen gasCarbon dioxide WaterEnergy Cellular Respiration uses oxygen and glucose to produce Carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.

42 Burning glucose in an experiment Energy released from glucose (as heat and light) 100% Energy released from glucose banked in ATP “Burning” glucose in cellular respiration About 40% Gasoline energy converted to movement Burning gasoline in an auto engine 25% How efficient is cell respiration?

43 Loss of hydrogen atoms Glucose Gain of hydrogen atoms Energy Reduction and Oxidation OILRIG Oxidation is losing electrons Reduction is gaining electrons Glucose gives off energy and is oxidized

44 General Outline Glucose Pyruvic Acid Glycolysis Oxygen Aerobic No Oxygen Anaerobic Transition Reaction Krebs Cycle ETS 36 ATP Fermentation

45 Glycolysis Where? The cytosol What? Breaks down glucose to pyruvic acid

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47 Glycolysis Steps – A fuel molecule is energized, using ATP. 13 1 Glucose Step 2 3 4 Glucose-6-phosphate Fructose-6-phosphate Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) Step A six-carbon intermediate splits into two three-carbon intermediates. 4 Step A redox reaction generates NADH. 5 5 1,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) 6 Steps – ATP and pyruvic acid are produced. 69 3-Phosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) 7 2-Phosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) 8 9 (2 molecules per glucose molecule) Pyruvic acid Fructose-1,6-diphosphate Energy In: 2 ATP Energy Out: 4 ATP NET 2 ATP

48 General Outline of Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System Transition Reaction

49 Each pyruvic acid molecule is broken down to form CO 2 and a two-carbon acetyl group, which enters the Krebs cycle Acetyl CoA Pyruvic Acid

50 General Outline of Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System Transition Reaction

51 Krebs Cycle Where? In the Mitochondria What? Uses Acetyl Co-A to generate ATP, NADH, FADH 2, and CO 2.

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53 Krebs Cycle

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55 General Outline of Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System

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57 Figure 6.12 Intermembrane space Inner mitochondrial membrane Mitochondrial matrix Protein complex Electron carrier Electron flow ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN ATP SYNTHASE

58 Electron Transport System For each glucose molecule that enters cellular respiration, chemiosmosis produces up to 38 ATP molecules

59 Overview of Aerobic Respiration

60 Fermentation Requires NADH generated by glycolysis. Where do you suppose these reactions take place? Yeast produce carbon dioxide and ethanol Muscle cells produce lactic acid Only a few ATP are produced per glucose

61 Fermentation

62 Fermentation When oxygen is not present, fermentation follows glycolysis, regenerating NAD + needed for glycolysis to continue. Lactic Acid Fermentation In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted to lactate. Fermentation in the Absence of Oxygen

63 Each molecule of glucose can generate 36-38 molecules of ATP in aerobic respiration but only 2 ATP molecules in respiration without oxygen (through glycolysis and fermentation).


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