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Ch. 10 Diagrams Photosynthesis. (a) Plants (b)Multicellular alga (c)Unicellular protists (d) Cyanobacteria (e)Purple sulfur bacteria 10  m 1  m 40 

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 10 Diagrams Photosynthesis. (a) Plants (b)Multicellular alga (c)Unicellular protists (d) Cyanobacteria (e)Purple sulfur bacteria 10  m 1  m 40 "— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 10 Diagrams Photosynthesis

2 (a) Plants (b)Multicellular alga (c)Unicellular protists (d) Cyanobacteria (e)Purple sulfur bacteria 10  m 1  m 40  m Figure 10.2

3 Figure 10.4 Mesophyll Leaf cross section Chloroplasts Vein Stomata Chloroplast Mesophyll cell CO 2 O2O2 20  m Outer membrane Intermembrane space Inner membrane 1  m Thylakoid space Thylakoid Granum Stroma

4 Equation for Photosynthesis 6 CO H 2 O + Light energy  C 6 H 12 O O H 2 O © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 Light Light Reactions Calvin Cycle Chloroplast [CH 2 O] (sugar) ATP NADPH NADP  ADP + P i H2OH2O CO 2 O2O2 Figure

6 Figure 10.7 Gamma rays X-rays UV Infrared Micro- waves Radio waves Visible light Shorter wavelength Longer wavelength Lower energy Higher energy nm 10  5 nm 10  3 nm 1 nm 10 3 nm 10 6 nm (10 9 nm) 10 3 m 1 m

7 Chloroplast Light Reflected light Absorbed light Transmitted light Granum Figure 10.8

8 Figure 10.9 White light Refracting prism Chlorophyll solution Photoelectric tube Galvanometer Slit moves to pass light of selected wavelength. Green light High transmittance (low absorption): Chlorophyll absorbs very little green light. Blue light Low transmittance (high absorption): Chlorophyll absorbs most blue light. TECHNIQUE

9 (b) Action spectrum (a) Absorption spectra Engelmann’s experiment (c) Chloro- phyll a Chlorophyll b Carotenoids Wavelength of light (nm) Absorption of light by chloroplast pigments Rate of photosynthesis (measured by O 2 release) Aerobic bacteria Filament of alga RESULTS Figure 10.10

10 Figure (b) Structure of photosystem II (a) How a photosystem harvests light Thylakoid membrane Photon Photosystem STROMA Light- harvesting complexes Reaction- center complex Primary electron acceptor Transfer of energy Special pair of chlorophyll a molecules Pigment molecules THYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID) Chlorophyll STROMA Protein subunits THYLAKOID SPACE ee

11 Figure Cytochrome complex Primary acceptor H2OH2O O2O2 2 H  + 1/21/2 P680 Light Pigment molecules Photosystem II (PS II ) Photosystem I (PS I ) Pq Pc ATP Electron transport chain P700 Light + H  NADP  NADPH NADP  reductase Fd ee ee ee ee 4 ee ee

12 Figure Photosystem I Primary acceptor Cytochrome complex Fd Pc ATP Primary acceptor Pq Fd NADPH NADP  reductase NADP  + H  Photosystem II

13 Figure STROMA (low H  concentration) THYLAKOID SPACE (high H  concentration) Light Photosystem II Cytochrome complex Photosystem I Light NADP  reductase NADP  + H  To Calvin Cycle ATP synthase Thylakoid membrane 2 13 NADPH Fd Pc Pq 4 H + +2 H + H+H+ ADP + P i ATP 1/21/2 H2OH2O O2O2

14 Input 3 (Entering one at a time) CO 2 Phase 1: Carbon fixation Rubisco 3PP P6 Short-lived intermediate 3-Phosphoglycerate 6 6 ADP ATP 6PP 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate Calvin Cycle 6 NADPH 6 NADP  6 P i6 P i 6P Phase 2: Reduction Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) P 5 G3P ATP 3 ADP Phase 3: Regeneration of the CO 2 acceptor (RuBP) 3P P Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) 1P G3P (a sugar) Output Glucose and other organic compounds 3 Figure

15 Figure C 4 leaf anatomy The C 4 pathway Photosynthetic cells of C 4 plant leaf Mesophyll cell Bundle- sheath cell Vein (vascular tissue) Stoma Mesophyll cell PEP carboxylase CO 2 Oxaloacetate (4C) PEP (3C) Malate (4C) Pyruvate (3C) CO 2 Bundle- sheath cell Calvin Cycle Sugar Vascular tissue ADP ATP

16 Sugarcane Mesophyll cell Bundle- sheath cell C4C4 CO 2 Organic acid CO 2 Calvin Cycle Sugar (a) Spatial separation of steps (b) Temporal separation of steps CO 2 Organic acid CO 2 Calvin Cycle Sugar Day Night CAM Pineapple CO 2 incorporated (carbon fixation) CO 2 released to the Calvin cycle 21 Figure 10.21

17 Light Light Reactions: Photosystem II Electron transport chain Photosystem I Electron transport chain NADP  ADP + P i RuBP ATP NADPH 3-Phosphoglycerate Calvin Cycle G3P Starch (storage) Sucrose (export) Chloroplast H2OH2O CO 2 O2O2 Figure 10.22

18 Figure 10.UN02 Primary acceptor Cytochrome complex NADP  reductase Photosystem II Photosystem I ATP Pq Pc Fd NADP  + H  NADPH H2OH2O O2O2 Electron transport chain


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