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Plant-like Protists continued… & Fungus-like. All are photosynthetic. All contain chlorophyll a. From microscopic to 60 meters. Many contain accessory.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant-like Protists continued… & Fungus-like. All are photosynthetic. All contain chlorophyll a. From microscopic to 60 meters. Many contain accessory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant-like Protists continued… & Fungus-like

2 All are photosynthetic. All contain chlorophyll a. From microscopic to 60 meters. Many contain accessory pigments. Habitats: freshwater, saltwater, moist environments. Classified by colors: method of sugar storage, number of flagella and chemical composition of their cell wall. Plant-like Protists notes_plantlikeprotists.html

3 Algae Four Phyla classified by COLOR Photo by Stef Maruch

4 Phylum Chlorophyta Ancient lineage to modern plants Contain chlorophyll a and b Have cellulose cell walls Store food as starch Grouped by their organization: unicellular, filamentous, colonial or bi-layered Green Algae

5 Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae Unicellular Organization Chlamydomonas

6

7 Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae Spiral-shaped chloroplasts – thus “Spiro” genus Filamentous Organization Spirogyra

8 2 Star-shaped chloroplasts per cells Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae Filamentous Organization Zygnema

9 Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae Mother Colony Daughter Colony Colonial Organization Volvox

10 Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae Bi-layered Organization Ulva – sea lettuce

11 Phylum Phaeophyta Multicellular Chlorophylls a and c, and the brown accessory pigment fucoxanthin Store food as laminarin (a carbohydrate) Brown Algae

12 Phylum Pheaophyta: Brown Algae Air Bladders: Used to take blades to the surface to collect light Laminaria, kelp

13 Phylum Rhodophyta Red Algae Are multicellular Chlorophyll a and phycobilin, a red accessory pigment Phycobilins absorb light that penetrates deep into the water… Red algae are found at lower depths than other algae

14 Are golden yellow Have 1-2 apical flagella Mostly fresh water Store surplus energy as oil Form cysts that allow them to survive under ice-covered lakes and dry lakes Chlorophyll a and c, and carotenoids (provide their color)

15 Three other Plant-like Protist Phyla… Bacillariophyta Dinoflagellata Euglenophyta

16 Phylum Bacillariophyta “Diatoms” Major component of phytoplankton and important producers in marine and freshwater food webs Significant contributors to the oxygen in our atmosphere Cell wall forms two shells that fit together like a box Shells are made of Silicon Dioxide (SiO 2 ), glass

17 Diatom Strew

18 Phylum Dinoflagellata

19 OTES/bk2chpt%202.htm

20 Phylum Euglenophyta Have chlorophyll a and b, plus carotenoid pigments Lack cell walls and are motile (animal-like traits) Eyespot detects light Most live in fresh water Have a Pellicle Have two flagella Can become heterotrophic when there is no light

21 Euglena (arrows indicate anterior end)

22 Phylum Myxomycota Plasmodial Slime Molds grow as a single, spreading mass or plasmodium Plasmodia… Are multinucleate Move and feed like amoebas (cytoplasmic streaming, phagocytosis)

23 Plasmodial Slime Molds Reproduce by spores Plasmodial Sporangia “Fruiting Bodies” When the environment becomes unfavorable (no food or water), they form stalks and spore-producing capsules When conditions improve, haploid spores germinate into amoeboid or flagellated cells These cells fuse to form a new diploid plasmodium

24 Phylum Dictyostelida: Cellular Slime Molds

25 Dictyostelida Life Cycle Pseudoplasmodium

26 Water Molds Phylum Oomycota are parasitic and live on decaying material form filaments, or hyphae (like fungi) secrete enzymes into surroundings & absorb nutrients (like fungi) Photo by Keisotyo on Wikimedia Commons © funguy110

27 robiologia1/micologia/fotos/oomycota.gif Examples: water molds downy mildews white rusts Oomycota Life Cycle

28 More Water Molds Phylum Chytridiomycota Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Most are aquatic, unicellular, and parasitic “Chytrids” Fungi similarities –Cell walls made of chitin (not cellulose) –Secrete enzymes into surroundings & absorb nutrients

29 Protists and Humans How protists affect our lives

30 Protists and the Environment  Produce large quantities of atmospheric oxygen  Many form the base of aquatic food webs  Important role in the carbon cycle o Carbon dioxide  carbohydrates  Some are decomposers  Some form symbiotic relationships… o With coral, protists provide color and carbon o Algae and fungi  lichens, which break down rocks into soil o Trichonympha digesting wood cellulose in termites’ intestines

31 Protists in Food British laverbread – an algae Nori – seaweed (algae) Kombu, used similar to spinach, kale, or other greens

32 Protist Byproducts Alginate… From large kelp (brown algae) Use in: cosmetics, medicines, salad dressings, and ice cream Carrageenan… From the cell wall coating of some red algae Used in: cosmetics, gelatin capsules (pill capsules), and some cheeses Agar… From cell walls of red algae The gel in the petri dishes you grew bacteria in Diatomaceous earth… From the shells of diatoms, Phylum Bacillariophyta Abrasive material in: detergents, paint removers, toothpaste, filters, and natural insecticides

33 Red Tide Red Tide is the result of an algal bloom… blooms, sudden growth, occur when there is an usually high concentration of nutrients. Red Tide is Toxic and can be very Dangerous! Phyluma Dinoflagellata

34 Giardiasis Giardiasis is an infection of the small intestine caused by a microscopic organism (protozoa), Giardia lamblia Symptoms include: Abdominal pain, Diarrhea, Loss of appetite, Nausea and Vomiting. Giardiasis can be contracted by drinking water from lakes or streams where water-dwelling mammals such as beavers, deer or domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, have caused fecal contamination. Hikers or others who use surface water should consider all sources as potentially contaminated.

35 Trypanosoma African Sleeping Sickness (coma) Tsetse Fly: carries Trypanosoma to humans; in other words, it’s a Vector White Blood Cell Red Blood Cells Trypanosoma

36 Plasmodium vivax, causes malaria It’s Vector: Anopheles Mosquito Plasmodium vivax Red Blood Cells Symptoms: severe chills, fever, headache, and fatigue Full life cycle is shown in your textbook.

37 Humans and Oomycota In the summer of 1846 most of the potato crop was destroyed by Phytophthora (an oomycota) Nearly 1,000,000 Irish people died, and 1,500,000 emigrated to other countries, like the U.S. Potatoes are native to North America They were introduced to Europe and became a staple of the diet


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