4 ExplainAutotrophs: biotic producers; photoautotrophs; chemoautotrophs; obtains organic food without eating other organismsHeterotrophs: biotic consumers; obtains organic food by eating other organisms or their by-products (includes decomposers)
6 General Over View of Photosynthesis Sunlight1. 6 CO2+ 6 H2O > C6H12O6 +6 O2Chlorophyll2. Carried out in plants, algae, and some bacteria.3. In plants and algae; chloroplasts. Bacteria; cytoplasm.4. The process is broken down into two parts: a). Light reactions b). Dark reactions (Calvin Cycle).
7 Light Spectrum violet indigo blue green yellow orange red 380nm 450 nm 600nm650nm
8 Light Being UsedChlorophyll is the main pigment in the chloroplast. It is green and will reflect the green light.Plants use the violet- blue area of the spectrum the most.The orange - red area is used also used.
9 Chlorophyll Light Absorption Absorption of Light byChlorophyll a and Chlorophyll bChlorophyll bChlorophyll aVBGYOR
10 The chloroplast Sites of photosynthesis Pigment: chlorophyll Plant cell: mesophyllGas exchange: stomataDouble membraneThylakoids, grana, stroma
11 Photosynthesis: An Overview LightO2SugarsCO2ChloroplastChloroplastNADP+ADP + PLight-DependentReactionsCalvinCycleATPNADPH
14 Light Reactions This set of reactions needs sunlight and chlorophyll. They occur in the area of the chloroplast called the thylakoids.Sunlight hits and activates an area called the photosystem causing water molecules to split into H+ and O2The Oxygen leaves the cell, while the H+ are used to help create 2 high energy chemicals ATP and NADPH.These chemicals are sent to the stroma to be used in the Dark Reactions.
16 Dark Reactions They occur in the stroma of the chloroplast. This process does not need sunlight and can occur 24 hours a day.In this series of reactions the plant makes a chemical called PGAL from carbon dioxide and the energy from the ATP and NADPH.This PGAL is an intermediate compound that is raw material for all the materials a plant needs. The most common is sugar.
17 Calvin Cycle CO2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input ChloropIast 5-Carbon MoleculesRegenerated6-Carbon SugarProducedSugars and other compounds
18 Summary This is a building process It requires water, carbon dioxide, sunlight, and chlorophyll. It produces sugar and oxygen..The Light reaction produces oxygen and the needed materials for the Dark reactions.The Dark reactions produce PGAL from the carbon dioxide, ATP and NADPH.PGAL will be used to produce sugar and other materials.