3 Topics of Discussion Fuel Considerations Matching steam generator design with fuel characteristicsBenefits of washing coalCoal additive injection
4 Steam Flow Balancing Aptech TubMod Analysis at Glen Lyn Unit 6 The unit experienced high temperature variations across the boiler, caused by tube circuit design and gas temperature/flow imbalances.TubMod analysis was performed to improve the temperature profile and extend the life of the superheater tubing.Through the TubMod process, temperature imbalances can be corrected by redistributing the steam flow. The result is an evening out of the tube metal temperature across the superheater elements, and a reduction in the temperature on the elements operating excessively hot.
6 Air Heater BasketsModifications are necessary to accommodate high sulfur fuel switch programs and SCR retrofits.Considerations to address high sulfur applications:Increased attention to exit gas temperatures being maintained above the acid dew point.Modifications to address SCR retrofits:Redesign of the heat transfer surface arrangement.3 layers reduced to 2 to envelope the ABS formation temperature within an area that can be cleaned with conventional sootblowing.The use of closed channel elements to better contain and focus the cleaning media to the areas of likely deposition.The utilization of multimedia blowers to facilitate both conventional on-line cleaning, and off-line washing.
7 Cleaning Media Discharge Air Heater BasketsALSTOM Power Inc. Air Preheater CompanyOpen Channel SurfaceClosed Channel SurfaceCleaning Media DischargeCleaning Media InletCleaning energy dissipates rapidlyCleaning media diverted around depositsRequires higher pressure for effective cleaningHigher risk of element damage from cleaningEach channel acts like a closed pipeCleaning energy cannot divert around depositsDeposits are readily removed, at lower pressuresLower risk of element damage from cleaning
8 Air Heater Seals Paragon air heater seal installation at Welsh Unit 3 Air heater leakage across air heater radial seals can average as much as 15 to 20%.The air heater leakage results in excess FD and ID fan motor amps, with the recognizance that the fan motors are one of the largest auxiliary power consumers in the plant.Reducing air heater leakage will show immediate heat rate benefits.Welsh Unit 3 saw a 30% reduction in ID fan amps after the installation of the Paragon Airheater Technologies radial and circumferential/bypass seals.
9 Air Heater SealsThe Paragon DuraMax radial seals incorporate unique, self-adjusting bellows that ensure positive contact with the sealing surfaces.The Paragon DuraFlex high-performance circumferential and bypass seals use a patented revolutionary interlocking design which reduces the air gaps.
10 Component Upgrades Total Platen Replacement Projects Upgrade tube material to all stainless steel vs. in-kind material selection with croloy and stainless steel material transitions.Improves the boiler’s slag shedding capability.Expands the types of coal a particular unit can burn.Stainless Steel Weld Overlay for ShieldingUse SS weld overlay on new boiler tube components in lieu of tube shields at sootblower locations.Spiral weld overlay has higher upfront cost, but minimal future O&M costs to maintain.AEP has some spiral weld overlay tubing in sootblower lanes with 10 years of service and no reported issues.
11 Component UpgradesNew Alignment and Attachment Designs
12 Online Detonation Cleaning Pratt & Whitney SHOCKSystem Economizer Cleaning at Rockport Unit 2Provides non-line-of-sight cleaning of tube bundles to remove bridging and platenization.Middle Economizer BundleProblem:Excessive Ash Piles and Bridging Cause Delta P and Heat Transfer ImpactSpatial Constraints Prevent Installation of Conventional SootblowersNorth WallLower Economizer BundleAsh Piles Extend Beyond Hangers
13 Online Detonation Cleaning BEFOREAFTERSHOCK BlastsSHOCK BlastsBefore SHOCKSystem™After SHOCKSystem™Ash Pile Accumulation Over Nine Months of Continuous Boiler OperationFirst Two Ash Piles Removed After Two Days of SHOCKSystem™ Operation
14 Online Detonation Cleaning Five Combustor Economizer Cleaner at Rockport Unit 2
15 Online Detonation Cleaning Rockport Unit 2 Economizer Cleaning InstallationFive Days of Intensive SHOCKSystem™ OperationDelta T Across EconomizerIncreased By 15°FEffective Heat TransferIncreased By 10%Temperature of Gas to AirheaterDecreased By 30°FTemperature of Gas from AirheaterDecreased By 15°FWeight of Ash Removed240,000 Lbs
16 Water Cannons/HydroJets Provides “intelligent” real-time cleaning of furnaces using water cleaning hardware and a closed-loop control system that utilizes sensors and software.Displaces conventional wall blowers or water lances as the best available technology for furnace cleaning.Uses cross-furnace cleaning where a controlled water jet is transmitted across the firebox to the opposite or adjacent walls.Water CannonHydroJet
17 Water Cannons/HydroJets Gavin Unit 2 Water Cannon Performance TestingFurnace Exit Gas TemperatureDecreased by 112°FNOx EmissionsReduction of 0.04 lb/MMBTUHeat RateDecreased by 25 BTU/kwhS02 to S03 ConversionReduction of 8-10%
18 Acoustic Leak Detection Acoustic leak detection system at Gavin Unit 1 & 2Consists of 30 remote acoustic sensors attached to membrane of exterior furnace walls and penthouse roof.Ethernet daisy-chain provides communication to control room were central computer is located.Information is processed, filters applied (sootblowers, furnace penetration seal air, etc.) and information is displayed on operator PC screen.Alarms are established for each sensor and refined as leaks are detected.Acceptance and reliance on acoustic leak detection has reduced forced outage durations from weeks to days.Provides better indication of tube leak than any other method, including older style acoustic leak systems and water loss tests.
19 Acoustic Leak Detection Gavin sensor layout along with HP heater screen which also have 1 acoustic leak detector per heater.Leak detection screen and alarm indication threshold at 92 dB.
20 Weld Overlay & Coatings Efforts to minimize NOx production have led to increases in furnace waterwall wastage, which has necessitated furnace corrosion protection.To combat high levels of corrosion, AEP currently reviewing various furnace protections including:Weld overlayMetal spray coatingsCeramic coatingsThe industry is working to optimize the choice of overlay and metal spray materials.Computer Modeling and/or thickness surveys are utilized to identify the areas needing protection.The overlay and metal spray processes have been automated by the vendors.
21 Balanced Draft Conversion Converting positive pressure units to balanced draft operation while retrofitting FGD’s.Improves the work environment of the boiler house, thus increasing productivity and equipment longevity.Reduces the likelihood of fugitive emissions occurrences due to casing leaks.Utilizes multi-speed motors on existing FD fans and the application of variable pitch axial ID fans.Provides the additional head to overcome the added resistance of the FGD.Optimizes unit efficiency over the load range and provides improved unit control.FD fan controls volume flow while ID fan maintains furnace pressure.Requires upgrading steam generators to accommodate the extremes of balanced draft operation.
22 Furnace Nose Installation Furnace nose installation on AEP’s 800 MW units completed in conjunction with FGD retrofit.Reduces the peak temperatures leaving the furnace, thereby reducing the slagging potential with higher sulfur coals.Serves to improve mixing and heat absorption in the furnace.Spreads the flue gas flow out over the leading edge surface of the pendants.Installed a 10 foot long nose in a 39’ x 80’ furnace.
23 Furnace Nose Installation Mitchell Unit 1&2 CFD Modeling Expected PerformanceFurnace Exit Gas TemperatureDecreased by 17°FSuperheater Heat AbsorptionIncreased by 15%Boiler EfficiencyImproved by 0.07%Coal ConsumptionReduced by 0.12%Loss on IgnitionReduced by 0.05%Aperture Floor VelocityReduced from 200 fps to 56 fps
24 Boiler Tube Failure Program Provides centralized boiler tube failure data and metallurgical analysis results.Makes for easy access to information/data for capital replacement justification purposes or O&M repairs.Centralized boiler tube failure tracking helps to alert other like series units of potential related tube failure mechanisms or issues.All tube failures are routed through corporate engineering. Based on visual review, the failure samples may be forwarded to AEP’s internal lab for further metallurgical and root cause analysis.
25 4th Gen Low NOx Burners Existing Low NOx Burners New Low NOx Burners 25 hot tips/burner fires per yearNOx emissions 0.75 lb/MMBTUProjected 135 hot tips/year with future coal (high sulfur and slagging)New Low NOx Burners0 hot tips to dateNOx emissions 0.48 lb/MMBTUPotential urea cost reduction of $350/dry ton urea (365 day ozone control)