1 What’s Up With Cement Plant Permitting? What’s BACT? Presented by A. A. Linero, P.E. Adminstrator New Source Review Section June 27, 2001
AWMA Conference, June 20012 Overview zKiln Construction is Back zFocus on Preheater/Calciner Process zFormation and Control of Pollutants zWhat’s Going on in Europe zSome BACT and LAER Ranges zLook at a Current Project zWhat Next? Questions?
AWMA Conference, June 20013 Views are Author’s ! zNot Opinions of Florida DEP zWe do Case-by-Case Reviews zLiterature Search, Not a Technical Paper zAs Seen by a Permitting Engineer zThere are Very Diverse Opinions zGreatly Simplified
AWMA Conference, June 20014 Dry Process Preheater Calciner Kilns
AWMA Conference, June 20015 Limited to New Dry Process Preheater Calciner Kilns Rinker Photo By FDEP
AWMA Conference, June 20016 From Top of Preheater Devil’s Slide Photos by FDEP
AWMA Conference, June 20017 Leaning Tower of Polysius? Florida Rock Photo by A. Linero
AWMA Conference, June 20018 Lot’s of Projects zProduction is up Nationwide. 80 Million TPY zFlorida Rock – First New Kiln in a Dozen Years zNew Plants – CO, FL, MS, NY, TX zModernizations and Expansions zAL, AZ, CA, CO, FL, IN, MS, SC, TX, UT zMost Require PSD Review and BACT (or LAER) zOthers “Net Out” – Switch Wet to Dry Process
AWMA Conference, June 20019 Pollutant Formation - NO X zThermal NO X zTemp. > 1200 O C zKiln Burner ~ 2000 O C zOxidizing Conditions zCalciner ~ 1000 O C zFuel NO X zKiln and Calciner Devils’ Slide Photo by FDEP
AWMA Conference, June 200110 Pollutant Control - NO X zMinimize T and Raw Materials Fluctuations zOptimum Process and Raw Mix Control zIntelligent Systems – Linkman, PyroExpert zMinimize Primary Air from Coal Mill zMaximize Hot Air From Clinker Cooler zAll New Projects Do These Things
AWMA Conference, June 200111 Kiln Burner NO X Graphic Source: F.L.Smidth/Fuller zMulti-channel Burner zPyrojet, Swirlax, Duoflex, GyroTherm, Rotoflam zFlame Shaping and Localized Reducing Conditions zHigh Momentum Primary Air Envelope zCompatible with Low NO X. All New Projects Do.
AWMA Conference, June 200112 SC Calciner zStaged Combustion (SC) zLower Stage – Reducing Zone zTires (15%), TDF, DDF, Bottle Caps zTertiary Air and Fuel zUpper Stage – Top Air zFlorida Rock Installing zMaybe 30 – 45% Reduction zAll New Projects Do This Graphic Source: Polysius
AWMA Conference, June 200113 Diaper Derived Fuel? z Devil’s Slide Filmed by FDEP
AWMA Conference, June 200114 Tire Gasification and SC zWhole Tires zMaybe 40% Tires zJura Cement - Wildegg zPossible at Suwannee, FL Graphic Source: Polysius
AWMA Conference, June 200115 SNCR zAmmonia or Urea Injection zHigh T, Near Calciner z15+ Kilns in Europe zTaiwan zMost Without SC zZero in U.S. Graphic Source: Fueltec
AWMA Conference, June 200116 SNCR – Problems? zMuch Resistance in U.S. z“Slip” and Possibility of Detached Plume zOften Occurs Even w/o SNCR zAmmonia Sulfates and Chlorides zCompatibility Question With SC Graphic Source: EnviroCare
AWMA Conference, June 200117 SNCR – Opacity? zNo Steam Plume in Dry Preheater Calciner Process zBaghouse Will Help Ameliorate Problem zAuthor saw No Plume at Siggenthal zStill Getting Plume? zManage and Solve Detached Plume Problem zWell Described by EnviroCare and CTL, Inc. zIncorporate Into SO 2 Control zHydrated Lime MicroMist, Avoid Aluminum Dross Siggenthal Photo by A. Linero
AWMA Conference, June 200118 SNCR – SC Compatibility zFor SNCR to Work, Need High T and O 2 zIn SC Calciner, T is High where O 2 is “Low” zOutside of Calciner, O 2 is “High” and T is “Low” zIs Lower End of Window 800 or 900 O C zJura Zement Has SC and SNCR and Gasification! z“No Effect on (Pre-SNCR) Excellent Plume Opacity” zNo Ammonia Slip (Low Removal Objective?) Graphic Source: Jura Zement
AWMA Conference, June 200119 Selective Catalytic Reduction zCatalyst and Low T Ammonia Injection zDemonstration Stage at Solnhofen zExtremely Dusty Environment zOr Need to Re-heat Stack Gas zMaybe Exotic Compared to Other Options zBetter to See What SC, SNCR, Achieve First
AWMA Conference, June 200120 European Emission Limits Polysius Graphic Modified by A. Linero
AWMA Conference, June 200121 SNCR at Leimen Plant - Germany Graphic Source: Heidelberger 2.3 lb/ton 3.7 lb/ton ~1.3 ?
AWMA Conference, June 200122 What is BACT? z2.5 lb/ton at Kiln Built Circa 1980! zSlug of 2.3 – 2.9 lb/ton BACTs, e.g. FRI 2.8 in 1996 z~ 1 lb/ton in Slite, Sweden (80% Reduction) z~ 1 lb/ton in Taiwan by SNCR z~ 1 lb/ton in 1994 Ash Grove SNCR Test z~ 1.2 lb/ton Annual Limit at Holnam Midlothian zEuropean IPPC BAT (200 – 500 mg/m 3 ) zEquals 0.9 to 2.3 lb/ton zLAER? Must Be Near 1 lb/ton. Lower if SCR Photo Source: RMC Lonestar
AWMA Conference, June 200123 Pollutant Formation – SO 2 zFuel Sulfur – Kiln/Calciner zRoasting of Pyrites in PH Graphic Source: F.L.Smidth/Fuller
AWMA Conference, June 200124 Pollutant Control – SO 2 zRaw Material Selection (Avoid Pyrites!) zFine CaO in Calciner Scrubs Kiln ~ 100% zMove CaO by P to Upper Preheater zCan Reduce Pyritic Emissions ~ 20-30% zCapitol Cement and Ash Grove Chanute zNeed More Fuel, Balance Heat zCapital Investment Looks Low Graphic Source: F.L.Smidth/Fuller
AWMA Conference, June 200125 Pollutant Control – SO 2 zCaCO 3 and Moisture on Raw Mill Surface zSome of the CaO from D-SO X zMaybe Together 70+ Percent of Residual SO 2 zWhen Raw Mill Out – Control Gas Temperature zSpray Fine Ca(OH) 2 Mist into Conditioning Tower zNot Enough - More Conventional Scrubbers zAchieve as much as 90 Percent Removal Pfeiffer Raw Mill
AWMA Conference, June 200126 Effect of Raw Materials & Process on SO 2 zPH/Calciner Kilns in TX – 1000’s of TPY of SO 2 zHigh Pyrites in Raw Materials zWet Kilns in Florida – 1000’s of TPY of SO 2 zFuel Sulfur, No Calciner - less Self Scrubbing zPH/Calciner Kilns in Florida – << 100 TPY zNo Pyrites in Raw Materials zFlorida Rock Kiln, Rinker Modernization zFrom 1000+ TPY to ~ 20 TPY Florida Rock Photo By FDEP
AWMA Conference, June 200127 What is BACT? z< 0.23 (or Better) in Florida With No Controls z~ 0.05 at Siggenthal by (Incidental) Coke Filter z~ 1.3 lb/ton at TXI Midlothian to Avoid PSD z< 1 lb/ton at Slite, Sweden (90% Reduction) zEuropean IPPC BAT (200 – 400 mg/m 3 ) zEquals 0.9 to 1.8 lb/ton zD-SOx & Lime Mist With Moderate Pyrites z90 % Scrubber Control With Very High Pyrites
AWMA Conference, June 200128 Pollutant Formation - CO & VOC zCO From Incomplete Combustion zVery Little VOC From Kiln and Calciner zEvolution in Preheater zOrganic Carbon from Raw Materials zCarbon from Coal Ash zVOC from Mill Scale, etc.
AWMA Conference, June 200129 Pollutant Control - CO & VOC zHot Excess Air, Mixing zTertiary Air After Calcining zE.G. Pyrotop after SC zRaw Material Selection – e.g. Millscale z~ 70% VOC Reduction at Florida Rock zMust Install Continuous Monitor zGrind and Introduce Directly into Kiln Graphic Source: KHD
AWMA Conference, June 200130 Regenerative Thermal Oxidation zTexas Cement Midlothian zAbout 10 Modules zArea of a Football Field zEnter Market at Earliest Date zAvoid PSD Delays “up to 3 Years” z$17,500,000 for RTO z$13,000,000 for SO 2 Scrubber Graphic Sources: Durr/Reeco
AWMA Conference, June 200131 Active Coke Filter zSiggenthal Switzerland zIn Conjunction with Dried Sludge Burning z$15,000,000 Partly Funded by Zurich z“Environmentally Friendly Dried Sludge Burning” zConcern Was Thallium and Mercury (on Cows?) zAlso Cleans up, SO 2, dioxin/furan, and Ammonia zWith SNCR Constitutes POLVITEC by Polysius
AWMA Conference, June 200132 What is BACT? zVOC = ~ 0.1 lb/ton in Florida (Hard to Meet!) zVOC = ~ 0.026 lb/ton at TXI (By RTO - LAER?) zCO = ~ 2 – 3.6 lb/ton in Florida zCO = ~ 6 – 8 lb/ton in SC zCO = ~ 0.37 lb/ton at TXI (By RTO - LAER?)
AWMA Conference, June 200133 European Rule 2000/76/EG PollutantConcentrationProcess Limit Dust30 mg/m 3 ~ 0.14 lb/ton NO X 500 mg/m 3 *~ 2.3 lb/ton * 800 mg/m 3 **~ 3.7 lb/ton ** SO 2 50 mg/m 3 ***~ 0.23 lb/ton *** Mercury0,05 mg/m 3 ~ 0.00023 lb/ton Fluorides 1 mg/m 3 ~ 0.0046 TOC 10 mg/m 3 ***~ 0.046 lb/ton *** CO _ * New Sources ** Existing Sources (Swedish non-EU standard is 200 mg/m 3 ~ 0.9 lb/ton) *** Non Raw Material-Specific Emission
AWMA Conference, June 200134 PollutantConcentration Process Limit Chlorides 10 mg/m 3 ~ 0.046 lb/ton Cd and Thallium0.05 mg/m 3 ~ 0.00023 lb/ton Sb+As+Pb+Cr+ Co+Cu+Mn+Ni+V 0.5 mg/m 3 ~ 0.0023 lb/ton Dioxin and Furan 0.1 ng ITEQ/m 3 European Rule 2000/76/EG
AWMA Conference, June 200135 Ozone Non-Attainment Area PollutantRequirementTop LimitTechnologyDraft Limit Proposed Control NO X (4121 tpy) LAER~ 1SNCR3.6 1 2.8 2,3 SC SC & SNCR(?) VOC (129 tpy) LAER0.026RTO~0.11Materials? SO 2 (850 tpy) BACT0.23Varies~0.74Scrubbers CO (3983 tpy) BACT0.37RTO~3.5Materials? 1.Initial Limit is 3.6 lb/ton during first two years by Staged Combustion 12-Month Average 2.Limit is stepped down from 3.6 to 2.8 lb/ton between years 2 and 3 3.Company proposes LAER after 38 months of operation. Department sets LAER (2007 ??)
AWMA Conference, June 200136 Final Thoughts z4000 TPY of NO X equates to z50 Gas-fired Combined Cycle Plants = to 12,500 MW zAt 3 million Btu/ton of Clinker z3.6 lb NO X /ton limit equates to z1.2 lb NO X /million Btu heat input zOrder of magnitude > than new coal power plant zTwo orders > greater than gas-fired power plant zSome low hanging fruit to pick here.