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European Commission Enterprise and Industry GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network Linking energy efficiency with environmental protection.

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Presentation on theme: "European Commission Enterprise and Industry GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network Linking energy efficiency with environmental protection."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Commission Enterprise and Industry GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network Linking energy efficiency with environmental protection in production - good practice Vanja Strle Ljubljana, 23th of February 2011

2 GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network Energy efficiency Environmental protection Use of energy Use of fuels Use of energy transferable mediums Production

3 Enterprise Europe Network BETTER ENVIRONMENT LOWER COSTS BIGGER BENEFITS GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network Goals

4 GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network Energy efficiency Environmental protection - reduced energy use - reduced use of fuels - reduced use of energy transferable mediums - better working utilisation rate Lower costs / Better environment - lower emissions - avoiding of penalties - lower taxes - lower fees - better business occasions Goals

5 GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network - reduced energy use - reduced use of fuels - reduced use of energy transferable mediums - better working utilisation rate - environmental benefits OPTIMISATION OF THE PRODUCTION PROCESS DETAILED KNOWLEDGE OF THE ENERGIES FLOWS

6 EXAMPLES / Energy intensive industries: - Production of insulation materials - Lime industry - Cement industry GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

7 EXAMPLES / Energy intensive industries Critical points in this industries are industrial ovens: -the consumption of the fuel -the type of the fuel -the type of the burners -increasing the heat transfer -adding the oxygen in the process -measuring and regulation of the combustion process -fore-heating of the burning air and the oven bed material -isolation -recuperation of the waste heat -good maintaining GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

8 1 - Production of insulation materials isolation: heat, sound, fire big consumption of energy source and energy big production of greenhouse gas emission important reducing of fuel consumption in isolated buildings The ratio - the production of greenhouse emission: production of stone wool : non-isolated buildings, 50 years 1 : 1000 GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

9 Production of insulating materials - stone wool Production phases: raw material preparation melting fiberisation of the melt binder application product mat formation curing cooling product finishing GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

10 Production of insulation materials - stone wool/ melting: oven: the coke hot blast cupola, alumino-silicate rock, dolomite, technological scrap from stone wool (briquettes – to prevent flow of dust emissions (oven atmosphere, external air), quality of melted material, disturbing of the flow blowing into the oven ), ~1700 °C, reductive conditions, warmed air / O 2 - blowing into the hot blast cupola GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

11 Production of insulation materials - stone wool/ melting - the energy flow: GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network entry- energy melting waste energy taken away with cooling taken away with air emissions possibilities for waste heat use

12 Production of insulation materials - stone wool/ cooling: GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network cooling of the coat of hot blast cupola waste heat heat is used for drive of absorption cooling system room heating cooling of other users regulation

13 Production of insulation materials - stone wool/ air emissions from melting: GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network hot waste air emission waste heat warmed air / O 2 - blowing into the hot blast cupola

14 Production of insulation materials - stone wool/ air emissions from melting: Different emission pollutants - need different cleaning approaches:  dust – bag filter, electrostatic precipitator, stone wool filter,  inorganic gas parameters like oxides of sulphur, oxides of nitrogen – are affected by the composition of the raw material and the quality of the coke, wet scrubber,  combustible gas parameters as volatile organic compounds, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide – burned in incinerator (thermal oxidation) GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

15 Production of insulation materials - stone wool/ air emissions from melting - carbon monoxide: carbon monoxide – burned in incinerator: it has to be achieved as much as possible complete burning CO + ½ O 2 = CO 2 + GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network En minimizing of CO less needed fuel for incineration using of waste heat for near users

16 Production of insulation materials - stone wool/ air emissions from melting - carbon monoxide: GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network substance air emission: mg/ m 3 grams / ton of melted material Example for capacity of 20 tons / day CO 10 – – (0,6 kg – kg)/ day Cupola furnaces ( data from EMEP/CORINAR )

17 Production of insulation materials - stone wool/ air emissions from melting - carbon monoxide: GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network Coke hot blast cupola: ReactionsEnergy formation /units C (coke) + ½ O 2 = CO~ 1,1 C (coke) + O 2 = CO 2 ~ 3,9 CO + ½ O 2 = CO 2 ~ 2,8 Energy consumed (1,7 units) C (coke) + CO 2 = 2 CO

18 Production of insulation materials - stone wool: Other possible measures to reduce the consumption of the fuel and energy and consequently also the air emissions - on the local and global level: -monitoring of the used fuel (coke, other fuels) -monitoring of the concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, which can show the efficiency of the burning -good isolation of the installations with warmed air and water -the process has to run continuously to prevent heat oscillations -working start and stop of the hot blast cupola has to be made progressive GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

19 Production of insulation materials - stone wool: Other possible measures to reduce the consumption of the fuel and energy and consequently also the air emissions - on the local and global level - saving the electric energy => minimizing the operator’s costs and the emissions on the global level: -high efficiency motors, variable speed drive, -minimizing of the reactive energy losses that cos φ between the voltage and the current peaks lies permanently between 0,95 – 0,99, -minimizing of compressed air demand, -Introducing a regular leak control program for compressed air system, -using of transporters with minimal rubbing GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

20 2 - Lime industry CaCO 3  CO 2 + CaO limestone  decarbonisation  quicklime GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network raw material – acquisition, preparation burning in the lime kiln in the range of /°C quicklime treatment slaked lime different granulations

21 Lime industry Burning of the limestone in the lime kiln => to use the best combination - the choice of the fuel, type of the kiln, position of the burners, affects on fuel consumption and emissions, as well as on the quality of the product: -gas, liquid fuel, solid fuel, waste fuels -shaft kilns, rotary kilns, other kilns -internal burners, external burners, special burners for waste fuel, centralized burners etc GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

22 Lime industry Burning of the limestone in the lime kiln => the right granulation of the limestone in the kiln makes space between particles and this aids: -better air circulation => reduction of excess air => saving the fuel => less air emissions -better heat exchange between gases and particles => saving the fuel => less air emissions -better burning => saving the fuel => less air emissions -better thermal oxidation of CO => less CO emissions is produced => more energy is released GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

23 Lime industry Burning of the limestone in the lime kiln => the previous cleaning of the limestone: -better conditions to make free space in the kiln between particles -less impurities have positive impact on the composition of the air emissions -easier regulation of the excess air, so not too much heat escapes with it through the chimney GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

24 Lime industry Burning of the limestone in the lime kiln: GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network preheating zone calcining zone cooling zone the direction of the limestone flow ~ 800 °C 900°C °C 900°C => 100°C preheated air fuel, air emissions to air

25 Lime industry Other possible measures to reduce the consumption of the fuel and energy in the lime industry and consequently also the air emissions: -monitoring of the used fuel -monitoring of the concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, which can show the efficiency of the burning -monitoring for controlling of good combustion of the fuel -regulation of burners -good isolation of lime kiln and installations with hot air -the process has to run continuously to prevent heat oscillations -working start and stop of the lime kiln has to be made progressive GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

26 Lime industry Other possible measures to reduce the consumption of the fuel and energy in the lime industry and consequently also the air emissions: -saving the electric energy (high efficiency motors, variable speed drivers, minimising of the reactive energy losses that cos φ between the voltage and the current peaks lies permanently between 0,95 – 0,99, minimising of compressed air demand etc.) => minimising of the emissions on the global level -use of waste hot air coming from preheating zone of lime kiln for the drying GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

27 Lime industry Use of waste hot air from preheating zone of lime kiln for the drying: GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network preheating zone calcining zone cooling zone the direction of the limestone flow ~ 800 °C 900°C °C 900°C => 100°C preheated air fuel, air emissions to air DRYING, cleaning-1 production of the sand washed / wet sand cleaning-2

28 Basic steps : GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network raw material: acquisition, preparation calcination clinkering process cooling of clinker grinding of clinker, gypsum and additives cement 3 - Cement industry

29 Cement industry: burning GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network CaCO 3  CO 2 + CaO limestone  calcination + quicklime 1. step 2. step CaO + ( Silica, Al 2 O 3, Fe 2 O 3 )  Ca-aluminates, Ca-ferrites, Ca-silicates clinkering process: clinker ~ °C ~1400°C °C

30 Cement industry: fuels for the burning Fuels used in rotary kiln for the clinker burning: a)solid fuels: e.g. coal, petcoke b)liquid fuels: e.g. fuel oil c)gaseous fuels: e.g. natural gas d)wastes: e.g. used tyres, waste oils, plastics etc. / the high temperatures and long residence times in the kiln system implies considerable potential for the destruction of organic substances GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network

31 Cement industry: fuels for the burning GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network fossil fuel wastes - the cost for the fuel - using of natural fuel resources - problems to achieve the reducing of CO 2 - the profit for the waste removal - saving the natural fuel resources - less CO 2 produced

32 Additional advantages for using waste as a fuel – comparison with the waste incineration: - in the rotary kiln are better conditions as in the waste incineration / gas retention times of about 8 seconds at temperatures above 1200°C in the rotary kiln (waste incineration: minimum 2 seconds at temperatures > 850°C or minimum 2 seconds at temperatures 1100°C for halogens) -maximum temperatures achieved in the rotary kiln ~2000 °C -oxidising gas atmosphere in the rotary kiln -uniform burnout conditions in the rotary kiln GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network Cement industry: wastes as a fuel for the burning process

33 Aditional advantages for using waste as a fuel – comparison with the waste incineration: -destruction of organic substances due to the high temperatures at sufficiently long retention time -sorption of gaseous components (e.g. HF, HCl, SO 2 ) on alkaline reactants -short retention time of exhaust gases in the temperature range in which PCDD/F can arise -chemical-minerological incorporation of the heavy metals into the clinker -complete utilisation of the ashe as a clinker component GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network Cement industry: wastes as a fuel for the burning process

34 Final conclusions about using waste as a fuel in the burning process in cement industry:  saving the natural fuel resources (less fuel used)  less CO 2 emissions  controlled removal of the waste  better environmental conditions for waste removal as in the waste incineration (less problematic air emissions); of course cleaning device for air emissions has to be used as in waste incineration  complete utilisation of the ash of the burned waste, as a clinker component GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network Cement industry: wastes as a fuel for the burning process

35 GReening business through the Enterprise Europe Network Thanks for your attention!


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