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Modeling Lime Kilns in Pulp and Paper Mills Process Simulations Ltd. #206, 2386 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada www.psl.bc.ca August 23, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Modeling Lime Kilns in Pulp and Paper Mills Process Simulations Ltd. #206, 2386 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada www.psl.bc.ca August 23, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modeling Lime Kilns in Pulp and Paper Mills Process Simulations Ltd. #206, 2386 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada August 23, 2006

2 Lime Kiln Issues l Kiln efficiency l Lower fuel costs l Burner characteristics l Refractory life l Dams and rings l Stable operation

3 Principle of Conservation Mass Momentum Energy ……. IN = OUT INOUT OUT Computational Modeling l Build a real size kiln model l Use computer to solve equations l Simulate processes in kiln

4 Mathematical Models for Kiln  Fully three-dimensional Reynolds- averaged transport equations of mass, momentum energy, and chemical species  Block-structure body-fitted coordinates with domain segmentation  Two-equation k- e turbulence model  Ray tracing model for 3D radiation heat transfer  Gas combustion model  Lagrangian solid fuel combustion models

5 Refractory and Calcination Models l Multi-layer refractory heat transfer model l Heat transfer and lime calcination CaCO 3 = CaO + CO 2 Heat absorbed MJ/kg CaCO

6 Modeling Output: Gas Velocity

7 Modeling Output: Gas Temperature

8 Modeling Output: Gas Species Concentrations * Other species include CO, H 2 O, NOx, etc.

9 Modeling Output: Flame Shape 0º -5º

10 Modeling Output: Refractory Temperature

11 Modeling Output: Shell Temperature

12 Modeling Output: Kiln Axial Profiles

13 Modeling Output: Gas Flow Animation

14 Modeling Output: Solid Fuel Flow Animation

15 Value and Benefit of Kiln Modeling l Optimize burner design l Optimize kiln performance l Evaluate alternative fuels l Minimize Emissions l Identify and eliminate thermal hot spots that lead to reduced brick lining lifetime l Identify and fix problems with kiln performance l Improve waste gas incineration

16 Advantages of Kiln Modeling l Model provides comprehensive information throughout kiln at relatively low cost l Can evaluate “what if” scenarios to improve operation l Supplements operator knowledge of lime kiln operations l Assists mill managers in making decisions regarding kiln retrofits/replacements l Assists in optimizing burner and kiln designs

17 Modeling Application: Burning Different Fuels Heavy Oil Petroleum Coke Natural Gas

18 Modeling Application: Oil/Gas Burner Design

19 Modeling Application: Coal Burner Design & NOx Emission

20 Modeling Application: Direct & Indirect Coal Combustion

21 Modeling Application: Burner with Different Primary Air Oil Primary Air Ratio of 22% Oil Primary Air Ratio of 60%

22 Modeling Application: Burning NCG in Kilns

23 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Overview l Site Survey and Measurements l Mass and Energy Balance Calculation l Kiln Geometry l Refractory Lining l Burner Design l Lime Feed Properties l Air Supplies l DCS Data Analysis

24 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Site Survey and Measurements Measured streams: - air in - fuel in - flue gas out - mud in - product out Measured parameters: - flow rate - temperature - composition

25 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Example of Mass Balance Mass In = Mass Out

26 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Example of Energy Balance Energy In = Energy Out

27 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Kiln Geometry - Fire End

28 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Kiln Geometry - Front View l Hood dimension, kiln diameter and length, tilt angle, kiln rotation l Location and size of any openings l Location and tilt angle of burner

29 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Kiln Burner Design

30 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Refractory Lining and Property

31 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Kiln Lime Mud

32 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Kiln DCS Data Display

33 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Kiln Operational Data Analyzer

34 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Selected Data Windows - 1

35 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Selected Data Windows - 2

36 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Computed Secondary Air Area

37 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Averaged Mill DCS Data

38 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Operation Conditions - Lime & Fuel

39 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Operation Conditions - Air Supply

40 Kiln Modeling Inputs: Flue Gas Calculation


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