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Sprawl and Race: Today's Winners Become Tomorrow's Losers / David Rusk (Sweet ch 3) ABSTRACT I.Sprawl A.Ohio consumes land at 5 x rate of population growth.

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Presentation on theme: "Sprawl and Race: Today's Winners Become Tomorrow's Losers / David Rusk (Sweet ch 3) ABSTRACT I.Sprawl A.Ohio consumes land at 5 x rate of population growth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sprawl and Race: Today's Winners Become Tomorrow's Losers / David Rusk (Sweet ch 3) ABSTRACT I.Sprawl A.Ohio consumes land at 5 x rate of population growth II.Contributes to problems in the core: A.Disinvestment B.Concentrated poverty C.Racial Isolation III.Need for regional solutions promoted by a broad coalition

2 [Introduction] I.Sprawl contributes to economic and racial segregation II.Even in “elastic” cities, and more so in “inelastic” ones

3 CONSUMING LAND I.NATIONAL STUDY, A.OHIO: 64% increase in urbanized land, 13% increase in urbanized population 1.Land being consumed at almost 5 times the rate of population growth B.Contributes to abandonment of homes in the core C.Contrast with Portland (see next slide)

4 [from Rusk 2001] Table 1 Land-to-Population Growth Ratiosfor Northeast Ohio Urbanized Areas from PopLand Land-to-Pop National average88% 255% 3 to 1 Cleveland 21% 112% 5 to 1 Lorain-Elyria ( ) 50% 78% 1½ to 1 Portland OR 129% 242% 2 to 1 (in 2000: The federal Natural Resources Inventory recorded that Ohio’s “developed land” increased 21.0% during the 1990s compared to a 4.7% increase in population – a 4.5 ratio of growth in developed land to population growth. This was the sixth worst ratio among all states.)

5 Table 2 Growth of Population ( )Compared to Loss of Farmland ( ) Metro Area Population FarmlandAcres per Net New Resident State of Ohio 4.7% -6.0% 1.8 Cleveland 1.8% -12.0% 0.8 Lorain-Elyria 5.0% -9.1% 1.0 Portland OR % 0.001

6 INSIDE GAME, OUTSIDE GAME I.Note: This is the title of Rusk’s 1999 book. The goal of the “games” is to stabilize and revive cities in the urban core. II.“Inside Game” – policies that cities can pursue within their borders A.e.g. - supporting Community Development Corporations (CDCs) III.“Outside Game” – policies that require regional cooperation to be effective A.E.g. land-use management, tax-base sharing, inclusionary zoning IV.In the book, Rusk concludes that only a combination of the two games will save cities and inner suburbs from continued decline

7 INSIDE GAME, OUTSIDE GAME CONTINUED I.Strong ‘sprawl controls’ help maintain the value of older communities (the core) II.Evidence – Cleveland vs. Portland A.Portland as example of successfully combining inside and outside games

8 Table 3 New Homes Built Compared to New Households Formed for Northeast Ohio from 1970 to 1990 (Rusk 2001) Metro Homes Households “Excess” Pct 1970 Units Area Built Formed Homes Built "Vanished ” Cleveland 167,300 62, % -12.7% Lorain-Elyria 31,200 21,000 49% -9.5% Portland OR 203, ,200 24% -9.5%

9 Table 5 Change in Assessed Property Valuation in Northeast Ohio (adjusted for inflation) from 1961 to 2000 (in $ billions) (Rusk 2001) Metro Valuation Valuation Real Change Real Change Area in 1961 in Cleveland PMSA $6.369 $ % 14% Cuyahoga $5.634 $ % 9% Cleveland $2.918 $6.096#-64%-5%# Rest of Cuyahoga $2.716 $ % 13%* Geauga $0.100 $ % 40% Lake $0.458 $ % 14% Medina $0.178 $ % 53%

10 Community Development Corporations I.[classic example of “inside game”] A.[Cleveland Neighborhood Development Coalition]Cleveland Neighborhood Development Coalition II.Track record III.Problem – trying to run up a down escalator IV.[this is an argument for the outside game]

11 “Comeback City” or “City Past the Point of No Return” I.“Past the point of no return” – unable to stabilize and rebuild by means of the inside game alone II.Rusk concludes that while Cleveland’s decline slowed in the 1990s, it is a city “past the point of no return” III.Evidence – no city that is as disadvantaged relative to its region as Cleveland has done so


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