Presentation on theme: "CRAMLAP Reflective Practice Steve Walsh. Learning Outcomes To provide participants with an overview of the main principles of RP; To consider the advantages."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Outcomes To provide participants with an overview of the main principles of RP; To consider the advantages of RP; To give participants an opportunity to examine RP in their own context; To evaluate RP practices;
Reflective Practice: summary 1. Overview and rationale 2. The process of reflective practice 3. Getting started 4. Reflective practice and assessment
Reflective Practice: overview(1) Teacher education: focus is on self- development There is a need for educationists to find out about their classes and make adjustments Donald Schon (1983, 1987): model of reflection in action:- CRITICAL THOUGHT QUESTIONING RE-APPRAISING
Reflective Practice: overview (2) Self-development is based on:- (a) Received knowledge: the ‘intellectual content’ of the profession; (b) Experiential knowledge: classroom experience PLUS reflection. Dialogue and discussion are central to development. Articulation of ideas is crucial to shaping pedagogical thinking (Taylor, 1985). Cooperative development therefore involves another professional.
Reflective Practice: principles 1. RP is problem-oriented: problem posing as well as problem solving; 2. RP is based on Action Research:- Action research is a powerful tool for change and improvement at the local level. [...] Its combination of action and research has contributed to its attraction to researchers, teachers and the academic and educational communities alike, demolishing Hodkinson’s (1957) corrosive criticism of action research as easy hobby games for little engineers! (Cohen et al, 2001). 3. RP ensures that teaching and learning are research-led; 4. RP is data-driven. Ownership of the data is central to professional development.
Reflective Practice: assumptions 1. Assumption 1: the research takes place in the classroom, conducted by and for the teacher-researcher. Research is contextualised and private. 2. Assumption 2: teacher-researchers reflect and act on what they observe: research PLUS action. 3. Assumption 3: understanding requires dialogue (Kemmis and McTaggart, 1992; Wells, 1999, Vygotsky, 1999). Social constructivist model of learning.
Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle (1984) Reflective observation results in abstract conceptualising; Abstract concepts guide experimentation; Experimentation results in more ‘concrete experiencing of an experience’; The learner changes from ‘actor to observer’, from ‘specific involvement to analytic detachment’.
Reflective Practice: acting on reflection TASK What aspects of your teaching and learning context could be investigated using action research? Working in small groups, devise 2-3 research questions which could be investigated using action research. Use these headings:- The teacher The students The materials/curriculum Relate your investigation to each of the phases of Kolb’s experiential learning cycle.
The Process of Reflective Practice Novice to Expert. 5 Levels (Eraut, 1994):- - Level 1: novice - Level 2: advanced beginner - Level 3: competent practitioner - Level 4: proficiency - Level 5: expert Level 5 is characterized by ‘unconscious reflection’. ‘To move from novice to expert, reflection must be linked to action’ (Fry et al, 2001: 209).
The Process of Reflective Practice TASK (a) Make a list of teaching strategies that you have used over the last 2-3 weeks (e.g. small group work, mass lecture, demonstration); (b) Analyse each teaching strategy: what is your role, what is the role of the learners, what tasks are used? (c) Examine one teaching occasion which went ‘badly’; list the unexpected factors and try to explain them. Discuss with a colleague – how could you change your practice?
Getting started – the what Aspects for self-observation in lectures:- achievement of learning outcomes links to previous knowledge structure of the session linking and summary delivery: pace, audibility, visuals communication with students engagement of students in learning process
Getting started – the what Aspects for self-observation in small group teaching:- Relationship of session to learning outcomes Interaction and involvement Facilitation skills Feedback and encouragement Use of teaching space Summarising and consolidation
Getting started – the how Data can be collected in a number of ways:- Self and/or peer observation Short audio-recordings Self-evaluation forms Minute papers Informal discussion with students Teaching assessments Critical incident analysis Other?