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Unit 6: Training Methods Experiential Learning and Technology©SHRM 2009
At the end of this unit, students will be able to:Unit 6, Class 1: Training Methods, Experiential Learning and Technology At the end of this unit, students will be able to: Describe the experiential learning cycle. Use the experiential learning cycle in an activity. Apply learning criteria in choosing teaching methods and activities. Identify and use elements of effective e-learning. Choose appropriate methods and activities for training. Objectives for this unit of the class. ©SHRM 2009
Training Methods Traditional training: Technology-based training:Presentation methods. Hands-on methods. Group building methods. Technology-based training: Synchronous learning. Asynchronous learning. Blended learning. Traditional training can occur in a number of ways. Presentation methods are typically instructor-led classrooms where the trainees are passive recipients of the information presented. Hands-on methods require the trainee to be actively involved in the learning. These methods are most appropriate for skill-based learning. Group-based methods are designed to improve the performance of an entire team. Group methods often involve an experiential learning process. Technology-based training is increasingly available to organizations through distance education or e-learning. E-learning can be synchronous, when trainees interact together in real time, or asynchronous, when trainees access information at different times and from different locations. Blended learning involves the use of both traditional training methods and distance learning. This unit focuses on traditional training methods as well as technology-based training and blended learning. ©SHRM 2009
Training Methods The training program must be: Developed or purchased.Available when needed. Within budget. Appropriate to trainees’ needs and abilities. Liked by trainees. Such that learning occurs. Such that learning is transferred to the workplace. Regardless how the training is presented, there are minimum requirements that must be met. ©SHRM 2009
Presentation Methods In a presentation method, content is presented to trainees who are passive recipients of information: Lecture. Lecture enhanced through audiovisual methods. The lecture is still the most common method of learning, though some would argue that its passive method of instruction is far from the most effective. Typically, information is presented from the trainer to trainees, thus communication is primarily one-way with little interaction from trainees. Lecture is the least expensive and least time-consuming method of presenting training to a large number of people at one time. Effectiveness of the standard lecture can be enhanced with the use of team teachers, guest speakers, panel discussions or student presentations. Audiovisual material is usually included in a lecture presentation. This may include slides, videos or overheads. Videos may supplement the presentation material by showing examples of real-life situations or application of the material presented. Source: Noe, R.A. (2008). ©SHRM 2009
Hands-on Methods (OJT)Hands-on methods require the trainee to be actively involved in learning: On-the-job training. Self-directed learning. Apprenticeship. The most common hands-on method of training is on-the-job training or OJT. New or inexperienced employees learn in the work setting during work hours. This is considered informal training because trainees are often trained by other, more experienced employees and it is not always part of a specific training program. Because it occurs in the workplace and is conducted by employees, OJT is a popular training method and requires little investment in time and money. In self-directed learning, employees take full responsibility for all aspects of learning. Trainees work at their own pace using predetermined training material. A trainer may be available for counsel but does not control the flow of information. Apprenticeship is a work-study method that utilizes both OTJ training and classroom training. It is most common in the skilled trade unions, such as plumbing and electrical work. In an apprenticeship program, the trainee is expected to complete specific hours of classroom instruction as well as specific hours or one year of OTJ experience. A major advantage of an apprenticeship program is that the learners are employed and earning pay while being trained. Full-time employment is usually available at the completion of the program. Source: Noe, R.A. (2008). ©SHRM 2009
Other Hands-on Training MethodsSimulations Case studies Business games Role plays Behavior modeling There are other hands-on training methods besides OTJ training that may be useful in specific circumstances. Simulations present training in a real-life situation with the trainee’s decisions mirroring what would happen in the same situation in the real world. To be effective, simulations must replicate the physical equipment and situations trainees will encounter on the job. They are used in circumstances such as training airline pilots, where training in the skies would not be appropriate. Because of the technical nature of the equipment used, simulations can be expensive to create and need constant updating as equipment and technology change. In case study learning, a description of an employee or organizational situation is presented to trainees who are then required to analyze and critique the case and indicate what appropriate actions should have been taken. Cases are often completed in class and are useful to teach analytical and decision-making skills. Business games are generally used for management skill development and require trainees to gather information, analyze it and make decisions based on their findings. They are often presented as a contest among trainees or teams of trainees. Business games need to portray realistic situations and generate excitement among trainees. Role plays have the trainers act out characters in a specific scenario. For role plays to be effective, trainers must first explain the purpose of the activity and the circumstances of the role play. The role play must be followed by a debriefing session that gives the participants an opportunity to discuss their experiences and insights into the activity and their feelings about the activity. Role play involving sensitive information, such as that sometimes found in diversity training or sexual harassment training, can make many trainees uncomfortable, and the trainer must be prepared to manage trainees’ discomfort. Behavior modeling is more appropriate for teaching skills and behaviors than for teaching factual information. Trainees are presented with a model who demonstrates key behaviors that are to be replicated. Trainees are given an opportunity to practice the key behaviors they see modeled. Behavior modeling is considered one of the most effective techniques for teaching interpersonal skills. ©SHRM 2009
Group-Building MethodsGroup-building methods are designed to improve team or group effectiveness. Experiential learning process: Gain conceptual knowledge and theory. Take part in a behavioral simulation. Analyze the activity. Connect the theory and activity with on-the-job situations. While presentation methods and on-the-job learning are generally intended for individual learning, group-building methods are intended to improve the effectiveness of the entire team. It is often done through the use of experiential learning. This involves an activity where all members of the group take part. Experiential learning has four stages: 1. Gain conceptual knowledge and theory. 2. Take part in a behavioral simulation. 3. Analyze the activity. 4. Connect the theory and activity to real-life situations on the job. ©SHRM 2009
Group-Building MethodsAdventure learning: Outdoor activities. Wilderness training. Team training: Cross training. Coordination training. Team leader training. Action learning. Adventure learning focuses on the development of teamwork and leadership skills through structured activities held off the worksite. The purpose is to develop team identity, cohesiveness and communication skills. Adventure learning activities are often physically demanding, and organizations must be aware that they may increase an organization’s risk for negligence claims due to personal injury. In addition, the Americans with Disabilities Act has raised questions about requiring disabled employees to participate in physically demanding training experiences. The trainer should always consult with the organization’s legal counsel or risk management department before engaging in adventure learning activities. Team training is intended to coordinate the performance of individuals who work together. One method is cross training. Cross training gives team members an opportunity to learn and practice each other’s skills so members are prepared to step in and replace a member who may be temporarily unavailable. Coordination training teaches team members how to share information and decision-making responsibilities. Team leader training is intended to teach management skills to team leaders, such as how to resolve conflict within the team or how to help the team coordinate activities or tasks. Action learning is used by organizations to help solve problems and develop leaders. In action learning, the team is given an actual organizational problem tasked to create a solution to the problem, and then carries out the plan. Source: Noe, R. A. (2008). ©SHRM 2009
Experiential Training4/13/2017 Learner-centered training that uses active participatory methods. Relevant to adult learning needs. Provides opportunities for the learner to: Engage in an activity. Critically review the activity. Draw useful insight from the analysis. Apply the result in a practical situation. This slide highlights the characteristics of experiential training. Source: Kolb, D. (1983). Experiential Learning, Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. ©SHRM 2009
Experiential Learning CycleRemember what we learned about Kolb’s learning cycle in Unit 3. Kolb describes a four-stage cyclical theory of learning in which the learner begins with a concrete experience. The learner then observes and reflects on the experience to form a concept or theory of what is observed. In the final stage, the learner tests their new understanding for use in future situations. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall, Inc. (Diagram courtesy of Learning-Theories.com, Source: Learning-Theories.com ©SHRM 2009
Let’s Work Through an ExampleGroup process: We’re going to work on a project as a group. Everyone has some experience with groups – some more successful than others. What kinds of groups have you been a member of? How did the groups work? We’re going to complete an experiential learning activity. This is a simple group process that allows students to experience the four phases of the experiential learning cycle in class. Set the climate by asking the students about the groups they have participated in previously. ©SHRM 2009
The Experience: Step 1 In your groups, solve this problem:Cut a piece of paper to look like the shape shown on the next slide. There are only two rules: You are only allowed to make ONE cut with the scissors and It must be a straight cut. You have seven minutes to complete the task. Place several sheets of blank paper and a pair of scissors in the center of the team. Do not give the objects to any one team member. ©SHRM 2009
The Desired Shape Allow seven minutes for the groups to figure it out before revealing the solution on the next slide. ©SHRM 2009
4/13/2017 The Solution ©SHRM 2009
Observation and Reflection: Step 24/13/2017 Observation and Reflection: Step 2 Was the task completed? What helped you to achieve the task? What got in the way? How did your group members work as a team? Ask students the questions on the slide. ©SHRM 2009 16
Forming Abstract Concepts: Step 3Draw conclusions. What did you learn about teamwork in dealing with this problem? What conclusions can you draw about how teams work? Ask students to draw conclusions by answering these questions. ©SHRM 2009
Testing in New Situations: Step 4Now what? Apply what you’ve learned: What would you do differently the next time you work with a team? How does what you learned about teams affect how you would facilitate a training session? What kind of action planning might be undertaken? Find out what students have learned from the experience by asking the questions on the slide. ©SHRM 2009
Closure What were the main messages of the session?Any other questions? To reinforce learning in a training session, the trainer must engage in a closure to wrap up the experience. Here the main points should be summarized and linked back to the learning objectives and the goals that were set at the beginning of the training. ©SHRM 2009
What Else Do We Know About Learning?©SHRM 2009
Edgar Dale: The Cone of LearningIn the 1960s, Edgar Dale theorized that learners retain more information from what they do as opposed to what they hear, read or observe. From this theory, he developed the Cone of Learning. This is a learning-by-doing theory, also referred to as experiential learning or action learning. Generally, everything above the 70% line – all that is read, heard, seen, or seen and heard in conjunction is considered passive learning. Action learning is below the 70% line. It includes what learners say and write and what they do. Trainers can use the cone of learning to choose the most appropriate training methods for accomplishing their learning objectives. Sources: Mesa Community College, John Wesley College, Dale, E. (1969). Audiovisual Methods in Teaching, third edition. New York: The Dryden Press; Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Source: Mesa Community College ©SHRM 2009
Advantages and Disadvantages of Training Methods4/13/2017 Advantages and Disadvantages of Training Methods Method Pros Cons Demonstration Opportunity to provide feedback. Does not involve everyone. Role play Good practice for participants and involvement. May be dominated by a few participants. Lecture Good for high content if presenter is good. Passive and not stimulating. Case study Good focus and high involvement. Panel discussion High content and variety of perspectives. Low learner involvement. There is no one-size-fits-all method. Every method has advantages and disadvantages; trainers should expect to use a variety of methods for training to be effective. ©SHRM 2009 22
What About Lectures? Active lectures gain the learner’s attention.To maximize understanding and retention: Include an opening summary. Use examples and analogies. Include visual backup. Involve participants. Reinforce the lecture. Although lectures are the most frequently used method of delivery, research indicates they are not very effective. Therefore, they need to be well-planned and learner-focused. Start by getting the learner’s attention by telling an interesting story or by an introductory exercise, test question or case study. To maximize understanding and retention, begin with an opening summary and use examples and visual backup throughout the lecture. Audience participation is essential in making a lecture less boring. Ask questions, introduce activities and involve the learner in the process. Reinforce the lecture at the end by participant review or group processing. Incorporate experiential activities or use a post-lecture case to allow participants to apply the learning from the lecture to solve a case. ©SHRM 2009
What About Activities? Activities should have a(n): Objective MethodFormat Activities should be related to instructional objectives. Various activities can be used throughout training to stimulate learning and retention. Using a variety of training activities will accommodate various learning styles and add interest to the training. Trainers should plan activities that relate to accomplishment of the learning objectives. Each activity must have an objective – What will it achieve? Each activity must have a method – How will it be accomplished? Each activity must have a format – How will it be done? Is it an individual or a group activity? ©SHRM 2009
Pros and Cons of VariousTraining Activities4/13/2017 Pros and Cons of VariousTraining Activities Method Pros Cons Field trips Allow for sensory perception. Needs prior preparation. Small group tasks Highly participatory and task oriented. May be dominated by a few participants. Video or film Good focus and pre-designed. May enhance content. Little participant interaction. Large group discussion Highly energizing and high participation. Fishbowl activities Develops understanding of concepts and differing perspectives. Limited active participation in activity. Trainers should use a variety of activities that will appeal to different learning styles. Activities should be interspersed throughout the lesson plan to add variety and increase interest. The activities chosen will depend on what is appropriate to the learners and to the content presented. ©SHRM 2009
Choosing the Training MethodWhat learning outcome do you want to influence? Verbal information. Intellectual skills. Cognitive strategies. Attitudes. Motor skills. What method best facilitates transfer of training? What will it cost? How do you decide what methods to use for training? Selecting a training method relates back to the learning objectives set for the training. The methods and activities chosen should be those that best involve the learner and achieve the desired learning outcome. Trainers must also keep in mind the issues of training cost and transfer of training. Generally, the more the training content and environment matches what the trainees will find on the job, the greater the likelihood that transfer of training will occur. ©SHRM 2009
Training Methods and ActivitiesPlan training methods and activities for your training project. Students work on team projects. ©SHRM 2009
Unit #6 – Class #2 – E-Learning and Technology in TrainingEconomic considerations The use of technology in training is expected to increase rapidly in the coming years as organizations look for ways to enhance employee skills and knowledge while maximizing the impact of their training dollars. E-training can be cost-effective because once it is developed, it enables training a large number of employees with limited training expense. In addition, research has shown that employees who actively train are 43 percent more productive than their non-training colleagues and significantly happier about their jobs. (Ward) Ward, J. LeRoy and Marcia Riley, E-Learning: The Cost-Effective Way to Train in Tough Economic Times, Employee Benefit Plan Review, August 2008, pgs 12-14 ©SHRM 2009
Why Use E-Learning? Organizational benefitsCost-effective – reduces training costs per employee No travel costs for employees Information can be readily updated Easy tracking Can generate statistical reports. How many employees receive training? Who receives training, how often and how are they doing? Track return on investment Can pinpoint training where it is needed There are a number of benefits to the organization when switching from traditional classroom training to some form of computer-based training. As indicated in the last slide, once the training is developed, it can be delivered to a large number of employees on an as-needed basis, thereby reducing the costs per employee. There is also a savings in travel expenditure as employees no longer have to travel to an off-site conference or seminar. Once the training has been developed and is available via the web or the organization’s intranet, the material can be updated from a central information site and made available to all employees involved. Information stays current without the need for printing and distribution expense. Technology has enabled easier tracking of training results. Besides automating enrollment, there are a number of statistical records that can be generated from a computer-based training program. Certainly organizations can track their training expense and their return on investment, but they can also track employees. They can gather information on who is using the training material and monitor assessment of individual learning. Organizations can also pinpoint training to a specific group of employees, thereby meeting the needs of individual trainees. ©SHRM 2009
Why Use E-Learning? Learner benefits: Training available 24/7No travel or time away from home More variety in training Training can incorporate games, Internet resources and social networking Wider access to resources – not just the trainer Besides benefiting the organization, e-learning has a number of benefits to the employee, the most obvious of which is the availability of training 24/7. Employees no longer have to travel to participate in training programs at scheduled times, but instead can log on to the training program from any location whenever it is convenient for them. A greater variety of training can be available to employees as they can access the organization’s entire training network instead of simply waiting for a particular training to be made available in their area. The network also allows access to a greater number of resources as trainees can tap into experts throughout the network instead of being limited to one or two trainers in a classroom session. The variety of activities that can be available in e-learning makes it especially appealing to younger employees, those accustomed to social networking and computer games, who may “tune-out” of training if they find the traditional classroom experience to be flat and boring. ©SHRM 2009
E-Learning Asynchronous: Synchronous:Most responsibility for learning is placed on the learner. Learning available 24/7; any time, any place. Synchronous: Virtual learning; live and online. The learner must participate on a schedule through message boards, video conference, text-chat or instant polling. Still, any place, but not always any time. E-learning can be either asynchronous or synchronous. In asynchronous training, there is no specific time that the learner must log in to the training program. It is up to the learner to participate as needed. The obvious advantage here is that the training is readily available 24/7 at the learner’s convenience. Communication between the trainer and the other learners is done through and message-board postings. In synchronous training, at least some of the learning is scheduled; the learner is required to log in at a specific time to participate in the training session. Trainers and learners interact live and in real-time, just as they would in a regular classroom. Synchronous training still has the advantage that the learner can participate in training from any location, but obviously, the learner no longer has the advantage of training at any time, 24/7. ©SHRM 2009
Technology-Based TrainingLevels of technology-based training: Communication. Online referencing. Testing assessment. Computer-based training. Asynchronous. Synchronous. Blended learning. Expert systems. There are a number of ways technology can be incorporated into training. The first and most basic level is that technology is used to enhance communication between the learners and between the learner and the trainer. This is generally accomplished through the use of or message-board postings. The second level incorporates online referencing into the learning design. This requires learners to access additional web sites beyond the class site for researching information or completing assignments. Level three involves online assessments, whereby learners access a web site for testing. The tests can be scored by computer, generate feedback to the learner and send the results to the trainer. Computer-based training, at level four, creates an interactive training experience in which the learner must respond to a learning stimulus provided by the computer. The computer analyzes the learner’s response and provides feedback to the learner. This could be asynchronous with feedback simply between the computer and the learner, or it could be synchronous with feedback provided simultaneously to the entire group of learners. Blended learning is a hybrid approach that combines computer-based training with face-to-face classroom instruction. This may be the best of both worlds because it combines the benefits of computer-based training, such as learner control and greater access to resources, with the real-time social interaction and discussion that is generally only found in a face-to-face classroom. The highest level of technology-based training is the use of expert systems, which allow learning to be more job-related and directly targeted to meet a business need. Expert systems generally contain a knowledge base and have decision-making capability that can draw a conclusion and solve problems. A user interface gathers and gives information to the person using the system. Source: Noe, R. (2008). ©SHRM 2009
Features of E-LearningContent: Text, video, graphics, sound. Learner control. Collaboration between learners and trainers. Link to resources. Delivery: web-based or intranet. Administrative: Tracking and monitoring. Return on investment. When designing e-learning, there are a number of elements that must be decided. First, what is the training about? What content will be included and how will it be presented? There are a number of ways content can be presented, and the method selected will likely be determined by the nature of the content, the skill level of the learners and the technology available. Whether the training is synchronous or asynchronous, ensure that there is some learner control in the process. Remember, learner control is an important characteristic of effective adult learning. It is important that there be collaboration between learners and between learners and the trainer. This can be done through , message boards, blogs or chat rooms. There are a number of features that make e-learning desirable for both the learner and the training. The most important advantage of e-learning technology, though, is its link to resources. The learner is no longer confined to just the trainer and the textbook for information; now the learner has a wealth of resources available via the Internet. This makes learning possibilities nearly limitless! There are also a number of methods available for content delivery. Trainers can upload content to the web, making the training widely available. If there is a need for restricted access, the web can still be an effective medium with availability protected by password. Larger organizations may use an intranet, thereby restricting access to organization employees only. This, too, can be password-protected if further restriction is desirable. Just as the computer can disseminate information and contribute to learner assessment, it can be used for tracking a variety of information that may be useful to the organization. Source: Noe, R.A. (2008). ©SHRM 2009
Effective E-Learning Organization must provide: Management support.Technology resources and ongoing support. Employee time away from work for learning to occur. Employee training in the use of e-learning technology. As with any other training, for e-learning to be effective, it must be supported by the organization. Management must recognize the value of e-learning and demonstrate support throughout the organization. There must be investment in the technology necessary to provide e-learning as well as ongoing support for maintenance and updating of equipment and software. Management must recognize that learning will be limited if employees are not given time away from work to participate in learning activities. Expectations that employees will be able to complete web-based training during breaks in their normal workday are unrealistic. Organizations must ensure that employees are given time and space for e-learning to occur. Technology training may be necessary to ensure that employees have the skills and confidence to engage in e-learning. Some individuals are intimidated by technology and may need extra time for basic learning to occur before they are ready to engage in the actual training program. ©SHRM 2009
Training Design: Which One?Traditional classroom. E-learning. Blended learning. When designing a new training program, the trainer must decide how best to present the material to the learners. Will it be a traditional classroom design, strictly computer-based or a blended environment? This decision hinges on the type of learning that is to occur. When training requires personal interaction, instructor support and visual cues, the traditional classroom may be the best. When training involves transfer of information to geographically dispersed employees, e-learning may be the obvious solution. In some cases, a blended approach may allow the best of both worlds. Trainers must decide what is most appropriate for the learners involved and for the type of learning that is to occur. ©SHRM 2009
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