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Unit 6: Training Methods Experiential Learning and Technology 1 © SHRM 2009
2 Unit 6, Class 1: Training Methods, Experiential Learning and Technology At the end of this unit, students will be able to: > Describe the experiential learning cycle. > Use the experiential learning cycle in an activity. > Apply learning criteria in choosing teaching methods and activities. > Identify and use elements of effective e-learning. > Choose appropriate methods and activities for training. © SHRM 2009
Training Methods Traditional training: > Presentation methods. > Hands-on methods. > Group building methods. Technology-based training: > Synchronous learning. > Asynchronous learning. Blended learning. 3 © SHRM 2009
Training Methods The training program must be: > Developed or purchased. > Available when needed. > Within budget. > Appropriate to trainees’ needs and abilities. > Liked by trainees. > Such that learning occurs. > Such that learning is transferred to the workplace. 4 © SHRM 2009
Presentation Methods In a presentation method, content is presented to trainees who are passive recipients of information: > Lecture. > Lecture enhanced through audiovisual methods. 5 © SHRM 2009
Hands-on Methods (OJT) Hands-on methods require the trainee to be actively involved in learning: > On-the-job training. > Self-directed learning. > Apprenticeship. 6 © SHRM 2009
Other Hands-on Training Methods Simulations Case studies Business games Role plays Behavior modeling 7 © SHRM 2009
Group-Building Methods Group-building methods are designed to improve team or group effectiveness. Experiential learning process: 1. Gain conceptual knowledge and theory. 2. Take part in a behavioral simulation. 3. Analyze the activity. 4. Connect the theory and activity with on-the-job situations. 8 © SHRM 2009
Group-Building Methods Adventure learning: > Outdoor activities. > Wilderness training. Team training: > Cross training. > Coordination training. > Team leader training. Action learning. 9 © SHRM 2009
Learner-centered training that uses active participatory methods. Relevant to adult learning needs. Provides opportunities for the learner to: > Engage in an activity. > Critically review the activity. > Draw useful insight from the analysis. > Apply the result in a practical situation. Experiential Training 10 © SHRM 2009
Experiential Learning Cycle 11 Source: Learning-Theories.com © SHRM 2009
Let’s Work Through an Example Group process: > We’re going to work on a project as a group. > Everyone has some experience with groups – some more successful than others. > What kinds of groups have you been a member of? > How did the groups work? > We’re going to complete an experiential learning activity. 12 © SHRM 2009
The Experience: Step 1 In your groups, solve this problem: > Cut a piece of paper to look like the shape shown on the next slide. > There are only two rules: You are only allowed to make ONE cut with the scissors and It must be a straight cut. > You have seven minutes to complete the task. 13 © SHRM 2009
The Desired Shape 14 © SHRM 2009
15 The Solution © SHRM 2009
Observation and Reflection: Step 2 Was the task completed? What helped you to achieve the task? What got in the way? How did your group members work as a team? 16 © SHRM 2009
Forming Abstract Concepts: Step 3 Draw conclusions. What did you learn about teamwork in dealing with this problem? What conclusions can you draw about how teams work? 17 © SHRM 2009
Testing in New Situations: Step 4 Now what? Apply what you’ve learned: What would you do differently the next time you work with a team? How does what you learned about teams affect how you would facilitate a training session? What kind of action planning might be undertaken? 18 © SHRM 2009
Closure What were the main messages of the session? Any other questions? 19 © SHRM 2009
What Else Do We Know About Learning? 20 © SHRM 2009
Edgar Dale: The Cone of Learning 21 Source: Mesa Community College © SHRM 2009
Advantages and Disadvantages of Training Methods Method ProsCons Demonstration Opportunity to provide feedback. Does not involve everyone. Role play Good practice for participants and involvement. May be dominated by a few participants. Lecture Good for high content if presenter is good. Passive and not stimulating. Case study Good focus and high involvement. May be dominated by a few participants. Panel discussion High content and variety of perspectives. Low learner involvement. 22 © SHRM 2009
What About Lectures? Active lectures g ain the learner’s attention. To maximize understanding and retention: > Include an opening summary. > Use examples and analogies. > Include visual backup. > Involve participants. > Reinforce the lecture. 23 © SHRM 2009
What About Activities? Activities should have a(n): > Objective > Method > Format Activities should be related to instructional objectives. 24 © SHRM 2009
Pros and Cons of VariousTraining Activities MethodProsCons Field tripsAllow for sensory perception. Needs prior preparation. Small group tasks Highly participatory and task oriented. May be dominated by a few participants. Video or filmGood focus and pre- designed. May enhance content. Little participant interaction. Large group discussion Highly energizing and high participation. May be dominated by a few participants. Fishbowl activities Develops understanding of concepts and differing perspectives. Limited active participation in activity. 25 © SHRM 2009
Choosing the Training Method What learning outcome do you want to influence? > Verbal information. > Intellectual skills. > Cognitive strategies. > Attitudes. > Motor skills. What method best facilitates transfer of training? What will it cost? 26 © SHRM 2009
Training Methods and Activities Plan training methods and activities for your training project. 27 © SHRM 2009
Unit #6 – Class #2 – E-Learning and Technology in Training Technology in training Economic considerations 28 © SHRM 2009
Why Use E-Learning? Organizational benefits > Cost-effective – reduces training costs per employee No travel costs for employees > Information can be readily updated > Easy tracking Can generate statistical reports. –How many employees receive training? –Who receives training, how often and how are they doing? –Track return on investment > Can pinpoint training where it is needed 29 © SHRM 2009
Why Use E-Learning? Learner benefits: > Training available 24/7 > No travel or time away from home > More variety in training > Training can incorporate games, Internet resources and social networking > Wider access to resources – not just the trainer 30 © SHRM 2009
E-Learning Asynchronous: > Most responsibility for learning is placed on the learner. > Learning available 24/7; any time, any place. Synchronous: > Virtual learning; live and online. > The learner must participate on a schedule through message boards, video conference, text-chat or instant polling. > Still, any place, but not always any time. 31 © SHRM 2009
Technology-Based Training Levels of technology-based training: > Communication. > Online referencing. > Testing assessment. > Computer-based training. Asynchronous. Synchronous. > Blended learning. > Expert systems. 32 © SHRM 2009
Features of E-Learning Content: > Text, video, graphics, sound. Learner control. Collaboration between learners and trainers. Link to resources. Delivery: web-based or intranet. Administrative: > Tracking and monitoring. > Return on investment. 33 © SHRM 2009
Effective E-Learning Organization must provide: > Management support. > Technology resources and ongoing support. > Employee time away from work for learning to occur. > Employee training in the use of e-learning technology. 34 © SHRM 2009
Training Design: Which One? Traditional classroom. E-learning. Blended learning. 35 © SHRM 2009
Experiential Learning Cycle Using experiential learning in designing training modules.
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