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Chapter 3 Computer Hardware and Peripherals: Your Digital ToolboxOur Digital World Chapter 3 Computer Hardware and Peripherals: Your Digital Toolbox Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
This chapter will help you be able to:Identify and explain functions of the computer system. Understand how a computer uses memory. Identify input and output devices. Explain features to look for when purchasing a computer. After reviewing this chapter you should be able to: Bullet 1: Identify the major components of a computer system such as the items contained on the motherboard, the power supply, and ports. You should also be able to explain the functions of all the major components. Bullet 2: Understand computer memory, and how both temporary and permanent memory works. Bullet 3: Identify and differentiate between input and output devices. Bullet 4: Finally, you’ll be able to explain the various features you might look for when shopping for a computer, such as processor speed, amount of available memory, and operating system. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Main Topics 3.1 A World of Digital Devices 3.2 The Parts That Make Up Your Computer 3.3 Input and Output Devices 3.4 Purchasing a Computer The main topics covered in Chapter 3 are: Bullet 1: A World of Digital Devices Bullet 2: The Parts That Make Up Your Computer Bullet 3: Input and Output Devices Bullet 4: Purchasing a Computer Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Why Should You Care? Be part of the technology age. Choose peripherals. Know how to make computer buying choices. Bullet 1: Digital devices are all the rage today. From your cell phone to your laptop or Xbox, you are likely to have a computing device that you use regularly. Bullet 2: Understanding how these devices work and hook up to other devices such as printers and wireless monitors lets you get the most out of them. Bullet 3: When you purchase your next computer, you’ll have lots of specifications and jargon to weed through to make the right buying choice. This chapter will help you learn how terms like gigahertz, dual core processor, and RAM relate to your computing experience. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
3.1 A World of Digital DevicesNext slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
How Many Digital Devices Do You Own?Many devices fit in the digital category today. All have some form of memory, an operating system, a way to input data and output information, a power source, and the ability to store data. Many digital devices connect to other devices called peripherals. A printer and a scanner are examples of peripherals. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.peripheral device The section 3.1 term to know is: peripheral device: A device that physically or wirelessly connects to and is controlled by a computer, but is external to the computer case. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Ask Yourself… Digital devices all have some form of Memory. operating system. power source. Storage. All of the above Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
3.2 The Parts That Make Up Your ComputerNext slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
What’s Contained on the Motherboard?The primary circuit board The CPU ROM and BIOS RAM Sound, graphics, and other expansion cards Bullet 1: If you’ve ever worked with electronics, you’ve used a breadboard. This plastic board has slots to place transistors, capacitors, and so on, and the ability to connect those components to run your electronic device. The motherboard on your computer is a similar kind of container for the various components that make up your computer system. Bullet 2: The central processing unit (or CPU) is a microchip that sits on the motherboard. It processes requests such as opening a document. Bullet 3: The motherboard also holds various types of memory. ROM (read-only memory) is permanent non-volatile memory. The BIOS, Basic Input Output System, is stored in ROM. During the boot-up sequence, the BIOS checks devices such as your memory, monitor, keyboard, and disc drives to insure they are working properly and to start them up. It also directs the hard drive to boot up and load the operating system (OS) to memory. Bullet 4: Random access memory (RAM) is temporary, volatile memory. This memory stores the programs and data currently being used by your computer. Bullet 5: In addition to the CPU and memory, the motherboard contains sound and graphics cards. These expansion cards enable input and output of sound or images. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Power Supply All computing devices have a power supply. Includes power cords, batteries, solar cells. What’s in the box? AC to DC. Reducing power usage. Bullet 1: All computing devices need power to work because they are electronic devices. Bullet 2: Power can be supplied in various forms – from plugging a desktop into an electrical outlet, working on a charged battery, or using solar cells. Bullet 3: The power supply in a desktop or laptop computer is located where the power cord is inserted at the back of the CPU. It is a metal box housed in the CPU that contains the connection for the power cord and a cooling fan to keep the connection from overheating. Bullet 4: The power supply switches alternating current (AC) provided from your wall outlet to lower voltages in the form of direct current (DC). Bullet 5: Your computer operating system, such as Windows, can send a signal to your power supply instructing it to hibernate, sleep, or turn off power. These states will place your computer into a lower power or no power state. To take your computer out of sleep or hibernation mode, move your mouse or press a key on the keyboard. To turn your computer on, press the power button. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Ports A computer uses ports to connect with a peripheral device such as a monitor. There are different types of ports: A physical port connects a computer to a device. These ports include serial, USB, FireWire, and infrared. The most common type of port is the universal serial bus (USB) port. You can use these for connecting wireless device transmitters, USB flash drives, and peripherals. Like a USB port, a FireWire port is based on a serial bus architecture. It provides a high-speed interface for high-end digital cameras, camcorders, and set-top boxes that connect to your TV. Your keyboard and mouse may be connected to the PS/2 mouse/keyboard port. In newer computers, the keyboard and mouse are often connected using a USB port. The Ethernet port is used to connect your computer to a network. VGA ports may be used to connect your monitor and audio ports connect your computer's sound system. An IrDA port can be used for short-distance, line-of-sight connection. This methodology is becoming obsolete as Bluetooth connectivity increases in popularity. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Storage Storage media read data from media and write data to media. Storage media are accessed using drives and include: Hard disks. Optical drives. External hard drives. Flash drives. Bullet 1: The work you do on a computer produces a document or file that you want to save. You might want to read, print, send, or make changes to it. To do any of these things, you need to store the information. Most computer storage media provide a way to write data and read it. Bullet 2: Storage media used by your computer are accessed using drives. The drives are identified with letter designations by Windows or with names such as Macintosh HD by the Macintosh operating system. Your hard disk is the storage disk in your computer. External hard drives can provide additional storage. They connect to your computer via a cable. An optical drive uses CDs and DVDs for storage. Flash drives provide a small format stick that plug into a USB port. Because flash drives are very portable, you can easily carry your data from one computer to another. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.motherboard read-only memory (ROM) BIOS expansion card PC card multicore processor parallelized power supply The section 3.2 terms to know are: motherboard: The primary circuit board on a computer; it holds the central processing unit (CPU), BIOS, memory, and expansion cards. read-only memory (ROM): Permanent memory that holds information such as the BIOS and instructions that the computer uses to start the operating system. BIOS: Code that checks and starts computer devices such as memory, monitor, keyboard, and disc drives, and directs the hard drive to boot up and load the operating system (OS) to memory. expansion card: A device inserted on the computer motherboard that adds capabilities such as sound, graphics handling, or network communications. PC Card: An add-on card that slots into a built-in card reader to provide other kinds of functionality such as adding memory or networking capabilities. multicore processor: A CPU chip that contains more than one processing unit (core), such as dual core (two cores) or quad core (four cores). parallelized: Software design that allows tasks to run pieces of a task on two or more processors. power supply: Switches alternating current (AC) provided from a wall outlet to lower voltages in the form of direct current (DC). Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.port physical port serial port universal serial bus (USB) port FireWire port Infrared Data Association (IrDA) port MIDI (Continued) port: A slot in a computer used to connect it to other devices or a network. physical port: A port that uses a cable to connect a computer to another device. serial port: A port, built into the computer, used to connect a peripheral device to the serial bus, usually by a plug with 9 pins. Network routers use serial ports for administration, although they are being replaced with web-based administration interfaces. universal serial bus (USB) port: A port in the form of a small rectangular slot that can be used to attach everything from wireless mouse and keyboard toggles (the small device that transmits a wireless signal to a wireless device) to USB flash drives for storing data. FireWire port: Based on the same serial bus architecture as a USB port, this port provides a high-speed serial interface for digital cameras, camcorders, set-top boxes, and high-end audio and video. Infrared Data Association (IrDA) port: A port that transfers data from one device to another using infrared light waves. MIDI: A protocol that allows computers and devices, such as musical synthesizers and sound cards, to control each other. Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.drive hard disk CD DVD Blue-ray disc optical drive (Continued) drive: A device that stores data on media. It can be integrated into the computer, or is external or removable. hard disk: The disk built into a computer that is the primary method of data storage. The disk rotates under a read/write head that reads and writes data. CD: A disc-shaped storage device from which you can read data, write data, or both. DVD: A disc-shaped storage device from which you can read data, write data, or both. This type of media can store larger quantities of data than a CD. Blue-ray disc: A type of disc-shaped storage device, mostly used for high-definition movies and games. optical drive: A drive that allows a computer to read and write data using optical technology, such as a DVD or CD drive. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.optoelectronic sensor external hard drive flash drive flash memory (Continued) optoelectronic sensor: Technology used in devices, such as optical drives, which detects changes in light caused by irregularities on a surface. external hard drive: A disk drive connecting to a computer via a cable in which you can store data and retrieve it from another computer. flash drive: Small, convenient device to store data and take it with you. Also known as a USB stick or thumb drive. thumb drive: See flash drive. USB stick: See flash drive. flash memory: A type of computer memory used to record and erase stored data and also to transfer data to and from a computer. It is used in mobile phones and digital cameras because it is less expensive than other types of memory. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Ask Yourself… What is a motherboard? a computer chip the primary circuit board a storage device the hard disc © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
3.3 Input and Output Devices© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
An Assortment of Input DevicesKeyboard and mouse Scanner Webcam Gaming devices Electronic pen RFID reader Touchscreen Microphone You use input devices to get data—from text and numbers to sound and images—into your computer. Input devices include: Bullet 1: A keyboard and a mouse are used to enter text and choose onscreen commands. Some keyboards include shortcut keys for tasks like playing DVDs or checking . A pointing device, translates movements of a mouse, trackball, or touchpad to actions on screen. Like many input devices, a mouse and keyboard use a device driver which is a piece of software that controls its functionality. Bullet 2: A scanner optically scans hard copy and converts it into electronic files. Bullet 3: A webcam is a video camera that is often built into a computer or a laptop monitor. You use it to transmit your image during an online phone call or web conference, for example. Bullet 4: Gaming devices like Xbox and Wii use game controllers to input moves in a game, perhaps to blast aliens or rack up points. Bullet 5: Some digital devices such as PDAs and Tablet PCs require a stylus or electronic pen to write on their screens. Bullet 6: You’ve probably seen RFID or bar code readers at checkout stands to scan products or to check inventory in store aisles. These devices read a tag that converts a barcode or radio signals to input. Bullet 7: Touchscreens use a transparent touch-sensitive panel overlaying a video screen. When you touch the panel, an electrical current or audio signal passing through or over the panel is captured by the sensors along the edges of the screen. Bullet 8: A microphone is used to get sounds, like narrations and music, into your computer in the form of audio files. Microphones might be built into your computer, be plugged in via a cable, or be part of a headphone set. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Computers in Your CareerBar code readers scan bar code. Used to track sales and inventory. Bullet 1: If you envision a retail career, you’ll want to learn how bar code readers work. They scan a series of lines, called a bar code, on a package. Most kinds of bar code readers use light beams to read the widths of the bars. The black bars absorb light, and the white portions between the bars reflect light. Bullet 2: The scanned code goes to a computing device to obtain prices for items, track sales, and update inventory. Using these devices isn’t hard, and they can save a lot of time and effort over manually tracking a store’s sales and inventory. Next slide Computers in Your Career © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Keystroke Logging SoftwareMalware delivered to your computer. Records keystrokes as you type. Sends information to a remote location. Protect against it using antivirus and spyware software. Bullet 1: Keystroke logging software is a type of malware that can be downloaded to your computer. Typically, this software gets downloaded to your computer when you click on an attachment or go to an untrustworthy site. Bullet 2: Keystroke logging software tracks all of your keystrokes. Bullet 3: The information is sent to a remote location. Imagine, for example, a remote criminal receiving your keystrokes when you log in to your credit card or bank account. This person could use your user ID and password to access your financial accounts and steal your money or identity. Bullet 4: To protect against this software and other malware, avoid dubious sites. Don’t click on suspicious links or open attachments that you’re not expecting. You’ll also want to install, update, and frequently run antivirus software and antispyware. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Computer Output Monitors and speakers. Printers and faxes. Projectors. Virtual reality displays. You get information off of the computer in a variety of ways. Output devices include: Bullet 1: Monitors provide visual output, allowing you to see documents in various software programs, websites, and more. Various types of monitors are available, such as TFT active matrix liquid crystal and plasma displays. Speakers provide auditory output, ranging from the beeps and pings your operating system uses to accompany certain actions, to music or spoken words. Monitor and speaker outputs are temporary. When you turn the devices off, the output is gone. Bullet 2: Printers and faxes provide somewhat permanent output on paper or other materials. A photo printer, which uses thermal technology to heat coated paper to produce an image, can print high-quality photos from the smartcard of your digital camera. Bullet 3: Some output devices project computer content, such as LCD projectors and document cameras. They also can display text from a 3D object, book, or other printed material. Bullet 4: Virtual reality systems connect a user to the computer to a user via a headset display and headphones. These systems are used to train pilots, astronauts, and doctors, and others in dealing with simulating situations. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.input device output device keyboard mouse infrared technology touchpad scanner webcam The section 3.3 terms to know are: input device: A device that allows a user to put data into a computing device. Translates into electronic (digital) form. output device: A device that allows a computer user to obtain data from a computer. This device translates electronic (digital) form to some other format. keyboard: An input device that consists of keys that a user types on to input data. mouse: An input device referred to as a pointing device, that detects motion in relation to the surface you rest it on and provides an onscreen pointer representing that motion. infrared technology: A technology that enables transfer of data over short distances using light waves in the infrared spectrum. touchpad: A type of flat mouse or pointing device often used in laptop computers, which senses finger movement. scanner: A peripheral input device used to create an electronic file from a hard copy document. webcam: Video cameras that are either built into your computer monitor or that you purchase separately and mount on your computer. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.gaming device wired data gloves electronic pen bar code reader RFID reader microphone keystroke logging software (Continued) gaming device: A piece of equipment such as an Xbox that allows a user to play a computer game using software or an online connection. wired data gloves: Equipment worn on the hands that allows users to communicate with a virtual reality system. electronic pen: A special input device used to write or draw on a Tablet PC screen. stylus: See electronic pen. RFID reader: An input device often used in retail or manufacturing settings to scan an embedded tag using radio frequency. bar code reader: An input device that optically scans a series of lines, or a bar code, using a light beam. microphone: An input device for sound. keystroke logging software: A kind of malware that is used to track the keystrokes typed by a computer user. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.monitor speaker Bluetooth headset TFT active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD) plasma displays surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) (Continued) monitor: A visual output device that displays data and information and provides the ability to view the computer’s interface. speaker: A device that provides audio output. Bluetooth headset: A wireless headset that can receive data (including sound) from Bluetooth-enabled devices. TFT active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD): The most prevalent type of monitor technology used today. It uses a thin film transistor (TFT) to display the computer’s contents. plasma displays: Flat panel displays mainly used for televisions. They use a lot of power, but have a very true level of color reproduction compared to LCDs. surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED): A display technology that uses nanoscopic electron emitters (extremely tiny wires smaller than human hairs) to send electrons that illuminate a thin screen. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.organic light emitting diode (OLED) printer photo printer thermal printer plotter fax machine LCD projector document camera virtual reality system (Continued) organic light emitting diode (OLED): A display technology that projects light through an electroluminescent (a blue/red/green–emitting) thin film layer made of up of organic materials. printer: A peripheral device used to produce printed output, or hardcopy. photo printer: An output device that prints high-quality photos directly from a camera’s flash memory to the printer without having to upload the photos to a computer first. thermal printer: A type of printer that heats coated paper to produce output. plotter: An output device used to print large blueprints and other design or engineering documents. fax machine: A device used to transmit a facsimile (copy) of a document to another location using a phone line. LCD projector: Liquid crystal display projectors are devices that project light through panels made of silicone colored red, green, and blue. The light passing through these panels displays an image on a surface such as a screen or wall. document camera: An output device that is often used in educational settings to display text from a book, slides, a 3D object, or any other printed material. virtual reality system: A system that connects users to a simulated world. It creates a connection between user and computer that allows both input and output in various forms and can be used to create sophisticated training programs such as those used by pilots, doctors, and astronauts. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Ask Yourself… Which of these is an input device? monitor speaker microphone printer Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.3.4 Purchasing a Computer Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Analyze Your Computing NeedsDo you need a high-speed Internet connection? Do you need portability? Will you do more than browse the Web and check ? Do you work with high-end graphics or video files? What’s your budget? Before purchasing a computer, think about the activities you’ll perform with it and how and where you’ll use it. Take into account the following: Bullet 1: If you are online often, and perhaps download or upload files frequently, consider whether you need a computer with a wireless adapter or built-in modem. Bullet 2: Do you need to take your computer with you? Then look at laptops and consider size and weight. Or, will you only use your computer from a desk? If so, you may find a desktop model to be less expensive and more easily upgraded than a laptop. Bullet 3: Some people don’t stretch the limits of a computer. They don’t use many software programs, watch videos on their computer, and so on. These people might find that a simple, lower-cost computer is appropriate. So, think carefully about how you’ll really use your computer features and software. Bullet 4: If you work with high-end graphics, lots of sound or video files, or you use your computer for games, you may need more memory to handle these large files and higher-end sound or graphics cards. Bullet 5: Finally, consider price. The range for computing devices is wide, from small netbooks costing a couple of hundred dollars to high-end multimedia and gaming units that run thousands of dollars. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Processor Speed Influences how fast programs run and tasks are performed. Measured in gigahertz (GHz). Multicore. Bullet 1: Your computer contains a central processor on a computer chip in your motherboard. The processor speed, a rating you’ll see when exploring computer specifications, controls how fast your computer can run programs and complete processing tasks. Bullet 2: Processor speed is measured in gigahertz, abbreviated GHz. The more gigahertz of processor speed, the faster your computer will run. Today you might see faster computers averaging 2.5 to 3.0 gigahertz, although some have reached 4 or 5 gigahertz. Bullet 3: A multicore processor contains more than 1 CPU. Two or more slower processors may be faster than one higher speed processor. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Memory and Storage RAM chips include DRAM, SRAM, and SDRAM. RAM rated by access speed in megahertz (MHz). Memory size measured in megabytes (MB) Hard drive capacity measured in gigabytes (GB). Your computer’s memory capacity is an important consideration. Here is some information to help you choose a computer with the right memory capacity for you: Bullet 1: RAM is the memory your computer uses to run programs. RAM chips come in different types such as DRAM and SDRAM. Most current computers use a variation of SDRAM. Bullet 2: RAM chips are rated by access speed. The faster this speed, the faster a request for data stored on your system can be completed. RAM access speed is measured in megahertz, abbreviated MHz If you run several programs at once or more sophisticated programs such as a CAD program, look for higher speed RAM. A typical access speed is 800 MHz, which would run most computers. Bullet 3: Adding RAM to your computer is one of the least expensive ways to improve the speed of your computer. Bullet 4: The capacity of your hard drive is an important consideration for efficient data storage and retrieval. Hard drive capacity is measured in gigabytes, abbreviated GB. Typical consumer PCs might have 160 GB to 500 GB of storage. Large business systems may use a hard drive measured in terabytes, abbreviated TB, or thousands of gigabytes. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Operating System Windows. Linux. Macintosh. Bullet 1: Windows is Microsoft’s operating system. It’s probably the most popular operating system in the world, but that popularity causes it to be a more frequent target of computer viruses. If you have to buy Windows or an upgrade, it can be a bit costly compared to an open-source operating system like Linux. One great thing about Windows is that its popularity drives the creation of lots of software applications and plug-ins. Bullet 2: Linux is an open source program that comes in different “flavors” such as Ubuntu and Red Hat. You can buy packaged versions of Linux. Other versions you can use for free after paying a small subscription fee. Bullet 3: Macintosh computers are only manufactured by Apple. Many applications written for Windows are also available in Macintosh versions. Depending on your model and how you set it up, you can run most Windows software on a Macintosh. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
High-end Graphics or SoundChoosing a graphics card. Consider the quality of your sound card. Gaming or multimedia computers. Bullet 1: Do you play a lot of computer games, play movies on your computer, or work with sophisticated photo imaging programs? Then you may want to buy a high-end graphics card. Look for ratings on graphics card speed. If you use a laptop, also look for power efficiency. Bullet 2: Games and movies require good sound, so consider both the sound card in your system and the quality of any built-in speakers. Bullet 3: If graphics and sound are important to you, look for computers labeled as gaming or multimedia models. These computers cost more than lower-end models. However, they have the higher-quality graphics and sound cards and higher memory specifications needed for good performance. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
Can You Future-Proof Your New PC?Why does computer hardware become obsolete so quickly? Why should most computer buyers avoid paying for fast computer chips? What might the computer of the future look like? Dwight Silverman, personal technology writer, discusses the speed with which computers become obsolete and how to future-proof your own computer in this podcast. Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.processor speed gigahertz (GHz) Moore’s Law memory capacity access speed megahertz (MHz) gigabytes (GB) wireless adapter clock speed The section 3.4 terms to know are: processor speed: The speed at which the CPU interprets and carries out instructions that operate the computer and its devices. gigahertz (GHz): A measurement of processor speed; one gigahertz is approximately one billion cycles per second. Moore’s Law: A theory proposed by Gordon Moore, one of the founders of Intel, which states that over time the number of transistors that can be placed on a chip will increase exponentially, with a corresponding increase in processing speed and memory capacity. memory capacity: The amount of memory (RAM) on a computer, which it uses to run programs and store data. access speed: The speed with which data in RAM can be accessed and processed by a computer. megahertz (MHz): A measurement of RAM access speed; one megahertz is approximately one million cycles per second. gigabytes (GB): The average computer’s hard drive capacity for data storage is measured in gigabytes; one gigabyte is approximately one billion bytes. wireless adapter: A piece of equipment used to connect a computer to wireless networks. clock speed: The speed at which a processor can execute computer instructions, measured in gigahertz. Next slide Terms to Know © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Ask Yourself… Which of these manufacture Macintosh computers? a variety of manufacturers Macintosh Apple IBM Next slide © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.Our Digital World End of Show © Paradigm Publishing, Inc. © Paradigm Publishing, Inc.
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