Presentation on theme: "5.4 Bellwork Argue for or against this statement. Be sure to support your opinion. English should be the official language of the United States of America."— Presentation transcript:
5.4 Bellwork Argue for or against this statement. Be sure to support your opinion. English should be the official language of the United States of America.
5.4 Language Diversity and Uniformity A. Preserving language diversity Hebrew: reviving extinct languages Celtic: preserving endangered languages Multilingual states Isolated languages B. Global dominance of English English as a lingua franca Diffusion to other languages
Preserving Language Diversity Extinct languages are viable languages that no longer exist. Possibly 516 near extinct languages presently. Gothic was spoken in Northern and Eastern Europe in the 3rd century A.D. People converted to Christianity and began speaking Latin instead. Languages die through integration, when other stronger cultures take over through politics or cultural preference.
Hebrew: Reviving Extinct Languages Hebrew is a rare case where it went basically extinct then it was revived. Bible was mostly written in Hebrew and Aramaic. Hebrew lost popularity in the 4 th century BC and only Jews remained using it for religious use. Eliezer Ben-Yehuda is one person who led the way to revive Hebrew after Israel became independent. He wrote the first Hebrew dictionary, and created over 4,000 new Hebrew words for modern things that did not exist.
Revival of Celtic Language Celtic language in Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. Welsh has made a comeback because of the efforts of the Welsh Language Society and Welsh being taught in schools. Irish Gaelic also has grown with the help of the younger Irish. It is also taught, and it is being used in popular culture more and more. Even an Irish Gaelic T.V. station started broadcasting in 1996. A couple hundred people have even revived Cornish (a Brythonic language) but they fight over how to spell things.
Multi Lingual States Language Divisions in Belgium Belgium is divided between the French speaking Walloons in the South and the Flemish (Dutch) in the north. (French & Flemish are from different language branches) Historically the French speakers were wealthier and ran politics. Conflict caused them to divide the country into two regions. Each ran independently.
Language Divisions in Belgium Mayor of Voeren (a “Flemish” town in Flanders but on the border of Wallonia) refused to speak Dutch. He was removed from office and jailed. The French-speaking members protested. Today many amendments have been added to the constitution to give each region more autonomy (self rule). The boundary lines are not fixed so there are still problems.
Language Areas in Switzerland Fig. 5-17: Switzerland remains peaceful with four official languages and a decentralized government structure.
Language Complexity In Nigeria ethnic conflict between southern Ibos and western Yoruba led the government to move the capital to a more neutral central location (Abuja). Many other ethnic battles rage continuously. In Switzerland, four official languages, a history of peace and tolerance, and a political system that puts power in the hands of local leaders ensure peace. Nigeria has more than 200 individual languages!
Isolated Languages Isolated Languages are unrelated to any other and not attached to any language family and occur because of lack of interaction with other languages. Basque is the only language spoken in Europe that was there before the Indo-Europeans came. It is spoken in the Pyrenees mountains of N. Spain and S. France. Icelandic IS related to North Germanic languages although it has changed less in the last 1,000 years than any other Germanic language because of isolation.
Basque Spain Basque is the only language spoken in Europe that was there before the Indo-Europeans came. It is spoken in the Pyrenees mountains of N. Spain and S. France.
Germanic Branch - Icelandic Iceland colonized by Norwegians in AD 874. Largely unchanged because of isolation combined with literary tradition. Highly developed literary tradition. Ancient sagas can be read by modern speakers of Icelandic.
B. Global Dominance of English A language of international communication is known as a Lingua Franca (often for business and/or politics). A group that learns English or another lingua franca often learns a simplified form called a Pidgin language Pidgin languages have no native speakers and are always second languages (unlike creoles).
PIDGIN - a form of speech that adopts simplified grammar and limited vocabulary from a lingua franca, used for communication between speakers of two different languages. Examples include Hawaiian Pidgin and the creoles of West Africa that resulted from the slave trade. “No eat da candy, Bruddah, it's pilau. Da thing wen fall on da ground.”
Matthew 6:9-13 “The Lord’s Prayer” - Taken from Da Jesus Book, a twelve year effort by 6 linguists to translate the New Testament into Hawaiian Pidgin, published 2001 Give us da food we need fo today an every day. Hemmo our shame, an let us go Fo all da kine bad stuff we do to you, Jalike us guys let da odda guys go awready, And we no stay huhu wit dem Fo all da kine bad stuff dey do to us. No let us get chance fo do bad kine stuff, But take us outa dea, so da Bad Guy no can hurt us. Cuz you our King. You get da real power, An you stay awesome foeva. Dass it!”
Expansion Diffusion of English English is taught to 83 percent of High school students in EU countries, and more than 90% in some. 200 million speak English fluently as a second language and millions more have a working knowledge of it. Japan has even considered making it a second official language.
English Diffused throughout the world by hundreds of years of British colonialism. Brought to New World by British colonies in 1600s. Has become an important global lingua franca.
Diffusion of Other Languages Franglais – French + English (Quebecois are fanatic about preserving their French language) Spanglish – convert English words into Spanish forms (for example: “e-sticker”) Denglish – English and German
French-English Boundary in Canada Fig. 5-18: Although Canada is bilingual, French speakers are concentrated in the province of Québec, where 80% of the population speaks French.
English on the Internet English dominated the Internet during the 1990s. But, the percentage of English uses has declined from 71% in 1998 to 27% in 2005 (as compared to the rest of the world). Mandarin is set to pass English as the leading language of internet users in 2010.
Internet Hosts Fig. 5-1-1: A large proportion of the world’s internet users and hosts are in the developed countries of North America and western Europe.
Internet Hosts, by Language Fig 5-1-1a: The large majority of internet hosts in 1999 used English, Chinese, Japanese, or European languages.
Key Points Language is a fundamental element of cultural identity. Languages diverge via migration and isolation. Small languages are disappearing as a result of globalization. Languages that share a common ancestor belong to the same family. Language diversity is a source of political conflict in the world. McDonald’s, Israel
1.The Flemings and Walloons live in what country? A. Belgium B. France C. South Africa D. Switzerland E. Liechtenstein
Ch 5.4 Review Questions 2.Official languages in Switzerland include all but which of the following? A. Italian B. Flemish C. Romansh D. French E. German
Ch 5.4 Review Questions 3.Basque is spoken primarily in A. Brittany. B. the Swiss Alps. C. the Pyrenees Mountains. D. Barcelona, Spain. E. Liechtenstein.
Ch 5.4 Review Questions 4.Franglais is A. the lingua franca of France. B. a dialect of French. C. the standard language of France. D. the use of English in the French language. E. a language used by French colonial administrations.
Ch 5.4 Review Questions 5.A language that adopts the simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of the lingua franca in the area is A. a creole. B. a lingua franca. C. a standard language. D. a pidgin. E. Swahili.
Ch 5.4 Review Questions 6.What language is set to pass English as the dominant language of the internet in the imminent future? A. French B. Spanish C. Mandarin D. Hindi E. Chinese
Ch 5.4 Review Questions 7.Which language has probably changed less over time than any other language? A. French B. German C. Dutch D. Icelandic E. Spanish
Ch 5.4 Review Questions 8.Celtic languages A. Were threatened by extinction in England. B. Are still spoken by people in France. C. Have been revived in some parts of the British Isles. D. Have an extensive body of literature. E. All of the above.
Ch 5.4 Review Questions 9.A language of wider communication often used to facilitate trade between speakers of different languages is called A. Ebonics. B. an isolated language. C. an extinct language. D. a lingua franca. E. Spanglish.
Ch 5.4 Review Questions 10.An African American dialect of English A. Ebonics. B. an isolated language. C. an extinct language. D. a lingua franca. E. Spanglish.