2 INTERESTING STATISTICS Over 7,000 languages100 spoken by at least 5 million30% of U.S. graduates have 3 or more years of foreign languageDutch are required to learn at least 2 languages in high school17% of U.S. high school students have no foreign language at all62% of Dutch students have learned at least 3 foreign languages
3 LANGUAGE Language - definition on p.146 Official language – used by government and for laws (ex. Street signs, money)It is a HUGE part of culture (along with religion and ethnicity)“To have another language is to possess a second soul” – CharlemagneSense of pride for people/nationsDistribution of languages is a result of past migrationsGeographers look at the similarity of languages to understand the diffusion and interaction of people around the world
4 LANGUAGE cont. Some languages (English) become global Individual language vs. language family (know the difference and examples – p.147)
5 Where are English-Language Speakers Distributed? ISSUE #1Where are English-Language Speakers Distributed?
6 English Speaking Countries Fig. 5-1: English is an official language in 50 countries, including some in which it is not the most widely spoken language. It is also used and understood in many others.
7 ENGLISH - ORIGINS 2nd most widely spoken language to…..? English is globally distributed, unlike MandarinEnglish is a Germanic language (it then mixed with French brought by Normans to create our “modern” English)MANDARINENGLISH
8 Invasions of England 5th - 11th centuries Fig. 5-2: The groups that brought what became English to England included Jutes, Angles, Saxons, and Vikings. The Normans later brought French vocabulary to English. KNOW THIS
9 ENGLISH – DIALECTS (general) Dialect – def. page 149Dialects reflect distinctive features of the places people liveA result of migration (English has a LOT…..why?)Dialect and Standard Language (ex. British Received Pronunciation)What do youcallthis?
10 ENGLISH – DIALECTS (in England) 5 major dialects (Northern, East Midland, West Midland, Southwestern, Southeastern/Kentish)- basically Northern, Midland and SouthernStandard Language (used by upper-class in London and what university cities?)Printing press led to diffusion of the Standard dialect
11 Old & Middle English Dialects Fig. 5-3: The main dialect regions of Old English before the Norman invasion persisted to some extent in the Middle English dialects through the 1400s.
12 DIFFRENCES BETWEEN BRITISH & AMERICAN ENGLISH IsolationEarly colonists are most responsible for the dominant language patterns we see today in the U.S.The Atlantic led to isolation (in terms of language) between the two, leading to differences in languages3 main differences are in vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciationRole of Webster (agenda?)
13 DIALECTS IN THE U.S.Originated due to different dialects among original settlersEarly settlers were clustered in:New England (2/3 from SE England)Mid Atlantic (N England, Ireland, Scots, German, Dutch, Swedish – most diverse of the 3 regions)Southeast (1/2 from SE England)
14 DIALECTS IN THE U.S. cont.Major dialect differences primarily on the East CoastWhat is an isogloss?Isoglosses separate the eastern U.S. into 3 major dialect regions:EasternMidlandsSouthern
15 Dialects in the Eastern U.S. Fig. 5-4: Hans Kurath divided the eastern U.S. into three dialect regions, whose distribution is similar to that of house types (Fig. 4-9).
16 DIALECTS IN THE U.S. cont.Regional pronunciation differences are more common than differences in word useWestward movement of colonists diffused dialects to middle and western parts of the U.S.Standard pronunciation of the West comes from the Mid-Atlantic states
17 Key Issue #1 Case Study True/False: Canada has two official languages True/False: Most French speaking Canadians are clustered in VancouverQuebec was colonized by the French in the _____ century and captured by the British in 17____
18 Key Issue #1 Case StudyTrue/False: Canada has two official languages True (French and English)True/False: Most French speaking Canadians are clustered in Vancouver – False (Quebec)Quebec was colonized by the French in the _____ century and captured by the British in 17____ (17th century; 1763)
19 Why is English Related to Other Languages? ISSUE #2Why is English Related to Other Languages?
20 INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILYEnglish is part of the Indo-European language family (the largest language family in the world)I-E is divided into 8 branches (see graphic organizer)
21 Indo-European Language Family Fig. 5-5: The main branches of the Indo-European language family include Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian.
22 ORIGIN & DIFFUSION OF I-E Proto-Indo-European - would be the common ancestral language (cannot be proven, why not?)Evidence is “internal”Theories about location and time period of P-I-E differ, two major are the Kurgan and Anatolian theories
23 ORIGIN & DIFFUSION OF I-E KURGANANATOLIANHomeland near steppes near border of Kazakhstan and RussiaAbout 4300 B.C.Nomadic herdersMigrated westward through Europe and Eastern Siberiaconquered much of this area between 3500 B.C. – 2500 B.C.Homeland in eastern Anatolia (think Turkey)2,000 years before Kurgans, some say even earlierMigrated westward through Greece through Europe and South AsiaDiffused through agricultural practices, not military conflict (as the Kurgans did)
24 Kurgan Theory of Indo-European Origin Fig. 5-9: In the Kurgan theory, Proto-Indo-European diffused from the Kurgan hearth north of the Caspian Sea, beginning about 7000 years ago.
25 Anatolian Hearth Theory of Indo-European Origin Fig. 5-10: In the Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European originated in Turkey before the Kurgans and diffused through agricultural expansion.
26 Where are Other Language Families Distributed? ISSUE #3Where are Other Language Families Distributed?
27 INTRO48% of the world’s population speaks an Indo-European language2nd largest family is Sino-TibetanSuperfamilies????SUPER
28 Language Families of the World Fig. 5-11: Distribution of the world’s main language families. Languages with more than 50 million speakers are named. Make sure you know the difference between family, branch and group and examples of each.
29 Major Language Families Percentage of World Population Fig. 5-11a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.
30 Language Family TreesFig. 5-12: Family trees and estimated numbers of speakers for the main world language families. Trunks = family languages; Smaller branches = language branches; Leaves = individual languages
31 For detailed notes on Key Issue 3 refer to your graphic organizer.
32 Why Do People Preserve Local Languages? ISSUE #4Why Do People Preserve Local Languages?
33 PRESERVING LANGUAGE DIVERSITY Extinct and nearly extinct (endangered) languagesHebrew is a rare example of an extinct language that has been revived
34 Jerusalem Street signA street in Jerusalem was re-named New York after Sept. 11, The street name is shown in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
35 PRESERVING LANGUAGE & DIVERSITY cont. CELTICMajor language before Germanic “invasions”divided into 2 branchesEfforts to preserved this endangered language(examples of efforts?)
36 Ireland Road SignsRoad signs in Ireland are written in both English and Gaelic (Goidelic).
37 MULTILINGUAL STATESTrouble can emerge on the border of regions speaking different languagesBelgium – southern speaks French while northern speaks FlemishCompounded by economic and political differences
38 Language Divisions in Belgium Fig. 5-16: There has been much tension in Belgium between Flemings, who live in the north and speak Flemish, a Dutch dialect, and Walloons, who live in the south and speak French.
39 Bookstore in Brussels, Belgium The name of the bookstore is printed in both French (top) and Flemish (bottom).
40 MUTILINGUAL cont.Switzerland – peacefully exists with multiple languagesWhy? Decentralized government and use of voter referenda4 official languages (German, French, Italian, Romansh)
41 Language Areas in Switzerland Fig. 5-17: Switzerland remains peaceful with four official languages and a decentralized government structure.
42 ISOLATED LANGUAGESNo relation to others, not part of any language familyArise through lack of interaction with speakers of other languagesEx. Basque (Europe)also look at Icelandic
43 GLOBAL DOMINANCE ENGLISH English has become the language of int’l communicationLingua franca (created to facilitate trade – history and meaning?)Lingua franca vs. pidginModern lingua franca languages: English, Swahili, Hindustani, Indonesian, Russian500 million speak English as a second language
44 EXPANSION DIFFUSION of ENGLISH LF’s have historically diffused through migration and conquestCurrent spread of English is a result of expansion diffusion (spread of a trait through the snowballing effect of an idea rather than through the relocation of people)Recent changes in English have been bottom up, historically they have been top downmodern ex. – Ebonics, Appalachiathe worldexpansion diffusion
45 DIFFUSION of ENGLISH TO OTHER LANGUAGES English has, more and more, become integrated with other languagesFranglais – combination of French and EnglishFrench pride detests spread of EnglishExtreme protection of French in Quebec
46 French-English Boundary in Canada Fig. 5-18: Although Canada is bilingual, French speakers are concentrated in the province of Quebec, where 80% of the population speaks French.
48 DIFFUSION of ENGLISH TO OTHER LANGUAGES Denglish – diffusion of English words into Germanuse of happy birthdayEnglish has spread into other languages as wellex. Baseball is beisboru in JapaneseSpanglish – combination of Spanish and English28 million Hispanics speak Spanish in the U.S.Includes the invention new words (ex. bipiar)Widespread in popular culture such as music
59 05.04 The ancestral roots of the English language have been traced back to present-day 1. France2. Iceland3. Finland4. Denmark5. Greece
60 05.04 The ancestral roots of the English language have been traced back to present-day 1. France2. Iceland3. Finland4. Denmark5. Greece
61 05.05 The second-most commonly spoken language in South America is 1. Portuguese2. Spanish3. French4. English5. Chinese
62 05.05 The second-most commonly spoken language in South America is 1. Portuguese2. Spanish3. French4. English5. Chinese
63 05.06 A creolized language is a local language mixed with 1. Another local language2. At least 20% slang3. The language of a colonial power4. English5. French
64 05.06 A creolized language is a local language mixed with 1. Another local language2. At least 20% slang3. The language of a colonial power4. English5. French
65 05.07 The most common language branch in eastern Europe is 1. Romance2. West Germanic3. Balto-Slavic4. Greek5. East Germanic
66 05.07 The most common language branch in eastern Europe is 1. Romance2. West Germanic3. Balto-Slavic4. Greek5. East Germanic
67 05.08 The primary reason why there are so many distinct languages in Africa is 1. The long periods of isolation between tribes2. The policies of the European colonial powers3. The migrations to Africa from Asia and Europe4. The major religious differences between tribes5. A cultural preference for languages that are unintelligible to others outside the immediate political unit
68 05.08 The primary reason why there are so many distinct languages in Africa is 1. The long periods of isolation between tribes2. The policies of the European colonial powers3. The migrations to Africa from Asia and Europe4. The major religious differences between tribes5. A cultural preference for languages that are unintelligible to others outside the immediate political unit
69 05.09 The predominant lingua franca today is 1. Swahili2. Pidgin3. Creole4. French5. English
70 05.09 The predominant lingua franca today is 1. Swahili2. Pidgin3. Creole4. French5. English
71 05.10 _________ is the native language of the largest number of people. 1. Hindi2. English3. Spanish4. Mandarin5. Russian
72 05.10 _________ is the native language of the largest number of people. 1. Hindi2. English3. Spanish4. Mandarin5. Russian