Presentation on theme: "HELLO, THIS MESSAGE IS IN ENGLISH…WHY AM I SPEAKING ENGLISH AND WHY CAN YOU UNDERSTAND ME? IF YOU CAN UNDERSTAND THIS TURN TO PAGE 149 AND READ FIGURE."— Presentation transcript:
HELLO, THIS MESSAGE IS IN ENGLISH…WHY AM I SPEAKING ENGLISH AND WHY CAN YOU UNDERSTAND ME? IF YOU CAN UNDERSTAND THIS TURN TO PAGE 149 AND READ FIGURE 5-2 AND LOOK AT THE MAP. GOODBYE.
1611: A book spread English and solidified its dominance…???
The Geography of Language La Geografía del Idioma La Géographie de Langue La Geografia di Lingua Die Geographie der Sprache
Key Issues Where are English language speakers distributed? Why is English related to other languages? Where are other language families distributed? Why do people preserve local language?
Language Defined Organized system of spoken words or symbols by which people communicate with one another with mutual comprehension (Getis, 1985). Languages subtly gradate (?) one to another. Dialects and other regional differences may eventually lead to incomprehensibility - a new language. Explain the impact Migration and Isolation has on language???
Language and Perception – Words for Snow 10 Words or more 'ice' sikko 'bare ice' tingenek 'snow (in general)' aput 'snow (like salt)’ pukak 'soft deep snow' mauja 'snowdrift' tipvigut 'soft snow' massak 'watery snow' mangokpok ‘wet snow on top of ice’ putsinniq 'snow filled with water' massalerauvok ‘mushy snow' akkilokipok What does this tell us about this culture? Who might this language be spoken by? Inuit people!
Language as Element of Cultural Diversity Languages spoken today, not including dialects Spoken in Sub-Saharan Africa alone 400+ in New Guinea alone 100+ in Europe TED Talks: “Don’t insist on English?” t-on.ted.com&share=1ac5ad4b0&utm_content=roadrunner- rrshorturl&awesm=on.ted.com_c08VT&utm_medium=on.ted.com-none&utm_campaign=http://www.ted.com/talks/patricia_ryan_ideas_in_all_languages_not_just_english?utm_source=direc t-on.ted.com&share=1ac5ad4b0&utm_content=roadrunner- rrshorturl&awesm=on.ted.com_c08VT&utm_medium=on.ted.com-none&utm_campaign However, this diversity is diminishing: Threatened or Endangered Languages …is this an effect of globalization?
There are over 2100 and by some counts over 3000 languages spoken natively in Africa in several major language families Language in Africa
South Africa has eleven official languages: –Afrikaans –English –Ndebele (un de bele) –Northern Sotho (sutu) –Sotho (sutu) –Swazi –Tswana –Tsonga –Venda (bin da) –Xhosa (cosa) –Zulu Most South Africans can speak more than one language.
What problems might arise?
Roots of Language Written Languages (Literary Tradition) - 1 st evidence of written language: Sumerian 3000 B.C., Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Libraries established by 2500 B.C. (more than 200,000 of the tablets have been preserved. - Why is writing connected to the Neolithic Revolution and not Paleo?
Roots of Language How to Write a Language?
Roots of Language Ideograms: symbols represent a phrase or word - Sumerian; Chinese; Egyptian; Japanese How to Write Down a Language?
How to Write a Language? Phonetic: symbols represent a sound Phonetic: symbols represent a sound Most languages, including Romance languages All the symbols look similar, even if it is a different language. A phonetic alphabet is the key innovation. WHY?
Language Divisions… how we classify language. Language Families Language Branches Language Groups Languages Dialects Accents
Language Divisions for English Language Families Language Branches Language Groups Languages Dialects Accents -- Indo-European -- Germanic -- West Germanic -- English -- Northeastern -- Boston (Pak da ka o-fa dere, pleese!)
Dialects in the United States: Think Pair Share Influenced and modified by later immigration Read Settlement in the East on page 151 and tell me why we have different dialects. Read Current Dialect Differences in the East and answer… What is an isogloss? Where are they in U.S.? Word examples? Please discuss with a partner!
Key Issue 2: Why is English Related to Other Languages? Language family : collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recorded history. Language branch: a collection of languages related though a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years ago. Creolized : language that mixes a colonizer’s language with the indigenous language
FAMILYBRANCHLANGUAGE English Spanish Mandarin Arabic Turkish Japanese Hindi Russian Vietnamese Yoruba
Indo-European Language Family (50% of World) Main Branches: Germanic - Dutch, German Romance - Spanish, French Baltic-Slavic - Russian Indo-Iranian - Hindu, Bengali
Indo-European Language Family - Germanic Branch LANGUAGE GROUP: Languages within a branch West Germanic English (514 million) German (128) Dutch (21) North Germanic Danish (5) Norwegian (5) Swedish (9)
Germanic Branch - Icelandic Largely unchanged because of isolation. Highly developed literary tradition. Ancient sagas can be read by modern speakers of Icelandic.
Germanic Branch - English Diffused throughout the world by hundreds of years of British colonialism. Brought to New World by British colonies in 1600s. Has become an important global lingua franca. What does lingua franca mean?
Indo-European Language Family - Romance Branch Like English these languages have been spread by Colonialism. Spanish (425 million) Portuguese (194) - most in Brazil French (129) Italian (62) Romanian (26)*** Separated by physical boundaries! …or Slavic people
Key Issue 3: Where are other language families distributed? Turn to page 161 and read the bullet points under the Classification of Languages Take Notes
Sino-Tibetan Language Family (26%) Branches: Sinitic - Mandarin, Cantonese Austro-Thai - Thai, Hmong Chinese languages based on 420 one syllable words with meaning infered from context and tone.
Language Families of Africa Fig. 5-14: The 1,000 or more languages of Africa are divided among five main language families, including Austronesian languages in Madagascar. There are far fewer MAJOR languages in the large continent of Africa than in Europe which is much smaller, but has many more MAJOR languages. What conclusions can you draw? Only 8 African languages are spoken by more than 10 million people
Afro-Asiatic Language Family Main Branch: Semitic Arabic(256) Language of the Koran; spread by Islamic Faith and Islamic (Ottoman) Empires Hebrew (5) Language of the old Testament (with Aramaic); completely revived from extinction in Israel, 1948.
Niger-Congo Diffusion Review: Who were the Bantu? What is Khoisan? Why is one type of language widespread and the other is not?
Key Terms PIDGIN - a form of speech that adopts simplified grammar and limited vocabulary from a lingua franca, used for communication between speakers of two different languages. Slave trade: developed pidgin languages (slaves communicating with locals to create a common language) CREOLE - a language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with an indigenous language. Often they are pidgins
Key Terms DIALECT - a regional variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, spelling, and vocabulary. Social Dialects - can denote social class and standing. Vernacular Dialects - the common, slang, speech of a region. The term Cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations. Originally a pejorative applied to all city-dwellers, it was eventually restricted to Londoners and particularly to the "Bow-bell Cockneys“ those born within earshot of Bow Bells, the bells of St Mary-le-Bow in east London's Cheapside district. More recently, it is variously used to refer to those in London's East End, or to all working-class Londoners generally Pg. 149 Dialects in England
Key Terms ISOLATED LANGUAGE - a language that is not related to any other languages and thus not connected to any language families. Examples include Basque and Icelandic. Basque Spain
Language and the Environment (Linguistic Ecology) TOPONYM - a place name. These are language on the land, reflecting past inhabitants and their relation to the land. Devil’s Tower, WYBadwater, Death Valley Mt Cook, New Zealand Cook Islands, Polynesia
Endangered Languages As recently as 3,000 years ago, there were 10,000 to 15,000 languages in the world. Today, only about 6000 left. Of those, 1/2 will be gone by the year 2100 and all but 500 of the rest will be endangered. More than 90 percent of the languages in existence today will be extinct or threatened in little more than a century if current trends continue.
Endangered Languages Why are they disappearing? Globalization Migration (Urbanization) Economic Development Lingua Franca easiest to use Media Internet (Requires certain character sets) Lingua Franca - a language used for trade by two people who speak different native tongues. Most common Lingua Franca today= English.
Key Points Language is a fundamental element of cultural identity. Languages diverge via migration and isolation. Small languages are disappearing as a result of globalization. Languages that share a common ancestor belong to the same family. Language diversity is a source of political conflict in the world. McDonald’s, Israel