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CHAPTERS 9-11 The Road to Civil War. Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny: popular belief US divine interest was to extend power to the WEST 1840’s Driven.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTERS 9-11 The Road to Civil War. Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny: popular belief US divine interest was to extend power to the WEST 1840’s Driven."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTERS 9-11 The Road to Civil War

2 Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny: popular belief US divine interest was to extend power to the WEST 1840’s Driven by population increase, tech advance, nationalism, rapid econ develop, reform ideals Not everyone agreed Interested in Texas (Mexico), Maine & Oregon (British) Ostend Manifesto (Polk offer to purchase Cuba) Walker Expedition (William Walker attempts to take Baja California but fails) : other issues overshadow the drive to acquire new lands

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4 Texas Oregon Mexico Independent from Spain 1823 By 1830: More Americans than Mexicans Friction Developed b/w groups Annexation denied (Jackson, Van Buren) Slavery Allowed 4 Countries claimed lands Adams-Onis Treaty 1819: US got claims to Oregon from Spain Discovered Columbia River Captain Robert Gray 1792 Expedition (Lewis & Clark) Texas & Oregon

5 1844 Election Dark Horse: James K Polk (Democrat, Tennessee, protégé of Jackson) Committed to expansionism Slogan “Fifty-four Forty or Fight” (after the line of latitude serving as the northern boundary of Oregon at 54°40'). Tyler (outgoing Prez) annexed Texas  War Broke with Mexico Polk – dealt with only part of Oregon (49 th Parallel)

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7 War with Mexico US annexed Texas w/o Mexican consent  Also wanted California Polk sent John Slidell to make negotiations but failed Army was moved (Gen. Zachary Taylor) near Rio Grande Mexican army crossed Rio 1846 killed 11 Americans caused the WAR Not everyone agreed (N. Whigs, Lincoln)

8 War with Mexico Fought in Mexican Territory June 1846, John C. Fremont overthrew Mexicans in California Taylor drove Mexicans back into Mexico Gen. Winfield Scott invaded Mexico City Sept 1847 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Mexican Cession 1848  Rio Grande (Texas Southern Border)  California and N. Mexico part of the US  US Pays $ 15 mil, assume claims

9 Opposition to War Whigs opposed: immoral effort to expand slavery Wilmot Proviso: forbid slavery from any lands acquired from Mexico  Did Not pass

10 Union in Peril: Conflict over status of territories  Free Soil (1848): party, movement  Did not demand an end of slavery  To keep the WEST land for whites  Prevented an extension of slavery  Free homestead (public land grants to small farmers)  South: viewed attempts to restrict expansion of slavery as Unconstitutional  Popular Sovereignty: Lewis Cass (Dem Sen. Michigan) issue of must be determined by a vote of the people in that territory

11 Presidential Election 1848 Democrats: Sen. Cass Whigs: Zachary Taylor (no political history, no stand on extension of slavery) Free-Soil: Van Buren  Consisted Democrats and Whigs (opposed slavery) TAYLOR IS PRESIDENT

12 1848 Presidential Election

13 Compromise of 1850 Gold Rush 1849 promotes more people to travel WEST California wants to become a state Prez. Taylor (Southern slave owner) but supported the idea of Cali & N. Mexico as free states South talks secession Henry Clay created yet another Compromise Cali admitted as a free state Mexican Cession: vote on slavery issue Ban Slave trade in DC Adopt Fugitive Slave Law & rigorously enforce

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15 Compromise of 1850 Controversial Clay, Webster vs Calhoun  Compromise saves UNION  South: Equal rights in acquired territory  Northern Opposition: Sen. William Seward 1850: Taylor Died, opposes Clay’s Compromise Vice Prez: Millard Fillmore: supporter of compromise Stephen Douglas, Sen. Illinois: idea to pass the compromise by pieces Finally passed, bought some “peace” time.

16 The Senate’s deliberations over the Compromise of 1850 featured the three most distinguished orators of the mid-19th century-Henry Clay of Kentucky, Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina in what would be their last great debate. Webster called for a compromise to preserve the Union while Calhoun argued that the Union could only be preserved if Northerners respected the Southern institutions including slavery. In this painting Clay has the floor, Calhoun stands third from the right, and Daniel Webster, head in hand sits on the left.

17 Slavery Issues Fugitive Slave Law  Helped Southerners accept California loss  Northern Abolitionist fought against law  Purpose to track down runaway slaves (fugitive)  Issue warrants for their arrest  Citizens aiding fugitives subject to heavy penalties Underground Railroad  Harriet Tubman (19 trips helped 300 Slaves)  Helped slaves escape into N or Canada Literature  Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe  Southern Reaction: a positive good for slave and owner

18 Effect of Laws & Literature Made slavery a MORAL issue Weakened the two political parties (Dem & Whigs) Disastrous application of popular sovereignty in Kansas Election of 1852  Whig: Gen. Winfield Scott- ignored slave issue (won 4 states, sign weakening of party)  Democrat: Franklin Pierce (NH)- supported Fugitive Slave Law (helped gain Southern Dem support)

19 1852 Presidential Election

20 Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Dems controlled White House & Congress Transcontinental railroad system Stephen Douglas plan to promote railroad for western settlement (disastrous) Needed southern approval for bill Proposed Nebraska Territory be divided in two (Nebraska and Kansas) promote popular sovereignty Two months of heated debate it passed Repealed Compromise of 1820 Renewed sectional controversy, promoted spread of Slavery New Political party emerged: Republicans (Antislavery)

21 Forcing Slavery Down the Throat of a Freesoiler An 1856 cartoon depicts a giant free soiler being held down by James Buchanan and Lewis Cass standing on the Democratic platform marked "Kansas", "Cuba" and "Central America". Franklin Pierce also holds down the giant's beard as Douglas shoves a black man down his throat.free soilerJames BuchananLewis CassDemocraticKansasCubaCentral America

22 New Parties Know-Nothings (American Party)  Ethnic Tension build up b/w Germans & Protestant  Responded with “I know nothing” to political questions  Drew support away from WHIGS  Opposed to Catholics Republican (Wisconsin 1854)  Free-Soilers, Antislavery Whigs, Democrats  Platform 1854 Election: repeal Kansas-Nebraska Act & Fugitive  Opposed slavery expansion, abolitionists later joined  : grew rapidly (second largest)

23 Election of 1856 Republicans- John Fremont  No slavery expansion  Won 11 out of the 16 free slave states  Evident Rep can win office w/o a single vote from SOUTH Know-Nothings- Former Pres Millard Fillmore Democrats- James Buchanan (WINNER)

24 1856 Presidential Election

25 Extremism & Violence Bleeding Kansas  Fighting breaks out between antislavery and proslavery ppl  Nickname for Territory  Border ruffians “Missouri residents” coming in to Kansa and creating a proslavery legislature  1856: proslavery attack free-soil town (anti-slavery)  John Brown, white-abolitionist, retaliates on proslavery farm (Pottawatomie Creek) (5 dead) Caning Senator Sumner 1856 (AKA Sumner Brooks Debate) Violence in Congress Sen. Charles Sumner attacks DEM admins and Southern Sen. Andrew Butler Butler’s nephew Congressman Preston Brooks walks in Senate beats Sumner with a CANE. “cane fit for a dog” North outraged, South applauded Brook’s sent him cane gifts

26 Constitutional Issues Lecompton Constitution  Buchanan to accept or not accept Kansas proslavery Constitution?  Did not have the support the majority of ppl from Kansas  Pres asked Congress to accept, Congress Denied, many ppl went to the Republican Party  1858 Defeated in Congress

27 Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) Proslavery decision (two days after Buchanan’s Oath) Chief Justice Southern Democrat (PROSLAVERY) Slave in Missouri taken to free territory Decision: A-Americans not granted citizenship thus cannot sue Made Compromise of 1820 unconstitutional South delighted with decision Western Territories open to slavery

28 Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 Illinois Senate Race  Stephen Douglas “hope to save the union” v. Abraham Lincoln “the unknown”  Lincoln not abolitionist (against expansion)  “If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong”  “house divided” speech, Southerners viewed him as RADICAL  Said Douglas was indifferent to slavery as a moral issue  Freeport Doctrine: Douglas slavery cant exist if the people did not pass a law

29 Lincoln-Douglas Debates

30 Road to Secession John Brown’s Raid at Harpers Ferry  Abolitionist (Martyr)  Slave uprising in Virginia at Federal Arsenal  Robert E. Lee captured Brown  Tried for treason, convicted, hanged  South: thought North wanted to destroy them Election of 1860 (final event that triggered secession)  Dem: Two Candidates (N &S) Douglas Breckenridge) -divided  Rep: Abraham Lincoln (platform focused on North & West)  Excluded slavery from west  South warned if Lincoln wins (president) then we leave UNION  Free States can win election w/o South electoral votes  New Party: Constitutional Party John Bell (they were sacred if Lincoln did not win) Whigs, Know-Nothings, Mod. Dems) John Brown

31 1860 Presidential Election

32 Secession of the Deep South 1860: South Carolina Six weeks later: Florida, Miss, Ala, GA, LA, TX 1861: created Confederate States of America  After April 1861: VA, NC, TN join  Same constitution w/ some differences  Limited gov’t power (no taxes) IRONIC  Can’t restrict slavery  Pres: Jefferson Davis (Miss)  VP: Alexander Stephens (GA)

33 Crittenden Compromise Outgoing Prez (Buchanan)- did nothing to prevent secession Sen. John Crittenden (Kentucky) Plan proposed slavery in territories south of 36 ◦30’ Did not pass

34 Secession Map

35 The Civil War: ( ) Civil War Video Costly war (Human life) 620,000 4 mil slaved freed Transformed American society  Accelerated industrialization and modernization  destroyed plantations Economical, Social, Political changes occur during war Lincoln “no state has the right to break Union”  Sent messages of consolidation and warning

36 War Strategy North: blockade Southern ports (Anaconda Plan) Divide confederacy Raise/train army of 500,000 South Defend lands Get foreign aid

37 North South Needed to keep the border states Conquer South (difficult) More people (22 mil) Industrial, more money, banks US navy, immigrants, African Americans Strong Gov’t Changing of Generals Expected war to be short Defend land (easier) Experienced leaders (war) Less people (5.5 mil) Less money, hope for foreign aid Need STRONG gov’t to win (they were weak) War Advantages & Disadvantages

38 North South General Scott Winfield Gen. George McClellan Gen. Ambrose Burnside Gen. Ulysses S. Grant Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman Gen. Thomas Stonewall Jackson Gen. Robert E. Lee Albert Johnston People to Know

39 federal forts in danger in South Fort Sumner (SC): 1 st Battle SC cut off vital supplies and reinforcements Lincoln: did not give up or defended fort  Just sent food for the federal garrison  Leaving the decision to SC (SC SHOT)  April 12, 1861 Use of executive power (Lincoln)  w/o authorizing with Congress  Calling for troops, authorize spending, suspend writs of habeas corpus

40 Battle of Bull Run (July 1861) 1 st major battle  Bull Run Creek in Virginia  Confederates sent Union forced back to DC Peninsula Campaign (March 1862)  Union (McClellan) invaded Virginia  Lee stopped Union trooped (retreated)  Changed generals (Pope) 2 nd Bull Run  A moment of weakness (changing Generals)  Lee attacked Union forced Pope to retreat to DC  Changed Union commander to McClellan

41 Antietam (Sept 1862)  Lee crossed in Union Territory (Maryland) for a victory (for foreign trade)  McClellan knew Lee’s Battle Plans (accidentally dropped)  Bloodiest single day (22,000) (up-to-date)  Lee retreated to VA  Commander Change (failure to pursue LEE’s weakened army)  Burnside Battle of Fredericksburg (Dec 1862)  Union attacked Lee (large Union loss 12,000 to 5,000 Conf) No Prospect for Military victory for either side

42 Monitor (Union) vs. Merrimac (Confederate) (March 1862)  Five hour duel b/w ships near Virginia  Ended in a draw  Revolutionized naval warfare: ironclad ships Grant in the West (Mississippi River)  Captured branches of the river (opened Miss to Union attack)  Albert Johnston surprised Grant in Shiloh, Ten  Union held ground, forced Confeds to retreat

43 Foreign Affairs Trent Affair (1861)  South sends representatives to try to get foreign aid (British liner, Trent)  Failed to get recognition Confederate Raiders  South bought warships from British shipyards  Did serious harm to Union merchant ships  Britain give $15.5 mil to US for damages King Cotton fails to get Aid  Lee’s setback at Antietam (no decisive victory)  Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation

44 Slavery Ends Confiscation Acts 1861 & 1862  Gen Benjamin Butler refused to return captures slaved to South. (“property”)  Freed slaves of South Owners for rebelling against US Emancipation Proclamation (Jan 1863)  Freed slaves in the US  Problem  South wasn’t apart of the Union  Help recruit African-Americans (200,000) 13 th Amendment (Dec 1865)  Abolished slavery

45 Vicksburg (1863)  Grant wanted to take Miss city  Bombarded for 7wks before South surrenders  Cuts off TX, LA, Arkansas from Confederates Gettysburg (1863)  Lee plans a surprise attack in North  Bloodiest battle (50,000)  Lee’s forces retreated to VA Grant is commander of all UNION  War of attrition to win war  Fought for months, more casualties than Lee  Reduced Southern army  Never gave up (Grant)  Changed fighting styles

46 End of War Sherman’s March (1864)  Gen. Sherman marches through southern states and destroys  Goes all the way to SC Election of 1864 (Lincoln Re-elected) Surrender at Appomattox ( April 9, 1865)  Lee surrenders Lincoln is assassinated April 14 at Ford’s Theatre DC  John Wilkes Booth

47 Effects of the Civil War 1. Political 1. Republican Dominance in gov’t, Civil Liberties (taken away: writs of habeas corpus), War draft: laws, paying $300 exemption, supremacy of federal gov’t 2. Economic 1. Borrow money, making money, increasing taxes, 1 st income tax, increase inflation, modernizing & mass production for war supplies, passed laws that helped the economy 3. Social 1. Women worked, introduced to nursing, movement for voting rights, 2. End of slavery, 13 th Amendment, economic & political oppression

48 Effects of the Civil War 1. Political 1. Ex Parte Milligan (1866): Supreme Court ruled that the application of military tribunals to citizens when civilian courts are still operating is unconstitutional. 2. Economic 1. Morrill Tariff Act (1861): raised tariff rates to increase revenue and protect industrialists 2. Homestead Act (1862): promote settlement in Great Plains by giving 160 acres of land for ppl who lived there 5 yrs 3. Morrill Land Grant (1862): encourage states to use federal land grants to maintain technical/agricultural colleges

49 Legacy of the Civil War “freedom of slaves” $15 million + property loss Women introduced to work force and nursing Transforms America in a modern and complex industrial society


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