Presentation on theme: "Geographic Information Systems GIS Software. 1. The Early GISs SURFACE II, by Kansa Geological Survey SYMAP, by Harvard Laboratory for Computer Graphics."— Presentation transcript:
Geographic Information Systems GIS Software
1. The Early GISs SURFACE II, by Kansa Geological Survey SYMAP, by Harvard Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis
SURFACE II SURFACE II Surface III displays of three-dimensional, single-valued surfaces The input to Surface III is a text file containing X-Y-Z data points. The program will create a matrix of rows and columns describing the surface. The gridding methods include distance-weighted averaging, polynomial fitting, and Universal kriging, Etc.
SURFACE II SURFACE II The software can create several kinds of maps contour maps three-dimensional fishnet diagrams color-filled contours data-point postings Grids can be added, subtracted, multiplied, or divided by one another (grid-to-grid operations)
SYMAP Developed as general-purpose mapping package beginning in 1964 Output exclusively on line printers Poor resolution, low quality Limited functionality but simple to use A way for non-cartographers to make maps First real demonstration of ability of computers to make maps Sparked enormous interest in a previously unheard- of technology
2. Major GIS Software Packages ArcGIS (ARC/INFO), Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcView, ESRI Autodesk Map, Autodesk Inc. GRASS (Graphic Resources Analysis Support System) IDRISI, Clark University Graduate School of Geography MapInfo, MapInfo Corporation Maptitude, Caliper Corporation Geomedia, Intergraph Corporation
ArcGIS (ARC/INFO) A long lived, full function GIS With hundreds of sophisticated tools for map automation, data conversion, database management, map overlay and spatial analysis, interactive display and query graphic editing, and address geocoding A relational database interface Changed to object-oriented design in version 8+ Use Visual Basic as the programming language
ArcView A desk top system for store, query, display, and analyze spatial data A graphic user interface facilitates display and viewing Support other analyses such as Geo-coding, Spatial Analyst, Network Analysis, web activation of ArcView maps, and 3D display
Autodesk Map Built on the capabilities of AutoCAD Extensively used in planning, engineering, and architecture Supports topology, Oracle and SQL query, and grids/images Extensive tools for coordinate conversion, map editing and digitizing Use C++ as a development tool
Autodesk Map 3D User Interface
GRASS Developed by the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (CERL) The headquarters is at Baylor University after CERL terminated GRASS work in 1996 The first Unix based GIS, using raster data It is a free software with an open architecture
Grass 6.0 Features New Vector Engine (geometry) Volume visualization Vector network analysis Interoperability
IDRISI A not-for profit operation A raster GIS, with an open architecture Image processing and spatial statistical analysis Time-series analysis, spatial decision support, uncertainty analysis
MapInfo A less than full-blown GIS, data ready Suited to economic, political, cultural, industrial applications A link to Basic programming language MapBasic
Maptitude Related to TransCAD, GIS-Plus GIS Come with geocoded and system-ready data Allow creation and maintenance of database, analysis of geographic relationship, and map display
Geomedia A layer based GIS With a set of modules for different functions There are additional extensions for land information, parcel management, public works, and transportation Maintains topologically clean data without building topology Use Orical and SQL for attribute data
3. Picking up a GIS Software Cost Training Manual User support group Software maintenance That is all well and good, but, but does it come with a remote?
4. Readings Keith Clarke, 2003, Getting Started with Geographic Information Systems, 4 th edition, Prentice Hall.