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Global Security Challenges Transnational Organized Crime: emerging trends of global concerns Lecture by Sandro Calvani, Chairman, Global Agenda Council.

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Presentation on theme: "Global Security Challenges Transnational Organized Crime: emerging trends of global concerns Lecture by Sandro Calvani, Chairman, Global Agenda Council."— Presentation transcript:

1 Global Security Challenges Transnational Organized Crime: emerging trends of global concerns Lecture by Sandro Calvani, Chairman, Global Agenda Council on Illicit Trade NATO Defence College, Rome, Italy, 20 May Transnational Organized Crime: emerging trends of global concern Lecture by Sandro Calvani, Chairman, Global Agenda Council on Illicit Trade NATO Defence College, Rome, Italy, 20 May 2010

2 2 Capital Crimes Conflicts FailedState A dangerous nexus The 3C factor

3 3 1.Organized crime: definition & typologies 2. Drug trafficking 3. Illicit arms trade 4. CBRN trafficking 4. CBRN trafficking 5. Trafficking in persons 6. Counterfeiting Resource crimes 7. Resource crimes 8. Maritime piracy 9. Cyber crime 10. Financial crimes: corruption, fraud, corruption, fraud, money laundering money laundering Emerging trends in organized crime

4 4 1. Organized Crime

5 5 United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and its Protocols Status (9 November 2009) UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Entry into force: 29 September 2003, Parties: 150 Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Entry into force: 25 December 2003, Parties: Organized Crime

6 6 UNTOC Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Entry into force: 28 January 2004, Parties: 121 Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Entry into force: 3 July 2005, Parties: Organized Crime

7 7 An offence is transnational if: It is committed in more than one State; It is committed in more than one State; It is committed in one State but a substantial part of its preparation, planning, direction or control takes place It is committed in one State but a substantial part of its preparation, planning, direction or control takes place in another State; It is committed in one State but involves an organized criminal group that engages in criminal activities in more than one State; or It is committed in one State but involves an organized criminal group that engages in criminal activities in more than one State; or It is committed in one State but has substantial effects It is committed in one State but has substantial effects in another State.” ( UNTOC Convention art 3.2 ) 1. Organized Crime

8 8 An organized criminal group is : A structured group of three or more persons existing A structured group of three or more persons existing for a period of time Acting in concert with the aim of committing Acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences established in accordance with the Convention To obtain, directly, or indirectly, a financial To obtain, directly, or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit (UNTOC Convention, art. 2a) (UNTOC Convention, art. 2a) 1. Organized Crime

9 9 A serious crime is: A conduct constituting an offence punishable A conduct constituting an offence punishable by a maximum deprivation of liberty of at least four years or a more serious penalty (UNTOC Convention, art. 2b) 1. Organized Crime

10 Composite Organized Crime Index 15 countries with the highest scores: 1. Haiti 2. Paraguay 3. Albania 4. Nigeria 5. Guatemala 6. Venezuela 7. Russian Fed. 8. Angola 9. Ukraine 10. Colombia 11. Mozambique 12. Bangladesh 13. Kazakhstan 14. Pakistan 15. Jamaica Organized Crime Indicators: - perceived organized crime prevalence; - the extent of the shadow economy; - the extent of the sshadow economy; - grand corruption; - money laundering; - unsolved murders (x population). (x population). (Jan van Dijk)

11 11 Organized crime group typologies: 1. Standard Hierarchy 1. Organized Crime: typologies

12 2. Regional hierarchy Organized Crime: typologies

13 3. Clustered hierarchy 3. Clustered hierarchy Organized Crime: typologies

14 4. Core group Organized Crime: typologies

15 5. Criminal network Organized Crime: typologies

16 16 1. Organized Crime Major Global Illicit Trades Trafficking of humans 2.4 million people $ 32 billion. Human Smuggling $ 10 billion Drug trafficking $ 400 billion Illegal logging $ 5 billion Environmental, pollution, natural resources $ 2 billion Trafficking in weapons dead $ 1 billion CBRN 1,562 incidents 65 % lost Trafficking in art $ 6 billion Counterfeiting of goods $ 200 billion Counterfeit medicines dead $ 75 billion Cigarette smuggling unpaid taxes $ 5 billion Money Laundering 2-5% of gl.GDP$ 800-2,000 bil. Cyber-crime Sources: WEF GAC report on illicit trade, 2010

17 17 1. Organized Crime Sources: The Global Criminal Product The Havocscope Black Markets Products Index suggests that the global illicit trade reaches The Havocscope Black Markets Products Index suggests that the global illicit trade reaches $1.023 trillion per year

18 Organised crime´s trends and unsolved issues TOC prioritizes systemic advantages, markets, power, and exploits States’ weaknesses ; TOC is increasingly effective in hiding its plans and activities. TOC prioritizes systemic advantages, markets, power, and exploits States’ weaknesses ; TOC is increasingly effective in hiding its plans and activities. Lack of innovative applied research on sources of HR and motivation for TOC, on citizen security and on vulnerability. Lack of innovative applied research on sources of HR and motivation for TOC, on citizen security and on vulnerability. Are mafias primitive states? Are mafias primitive states? Which action comes first? Corruption, law enforcement, social justice, education (incl. ethics), control of illicit trade effective public services, Which action comes first? Corruption, law enforcement, social justice, education (incl. ethics), control of illicit trade effective public services, … Is there a sense of urgency? Organized Crime

19 2. Drug Trafficking Drugs 2. Drug Trafficking

20 20 2. Drugs Trafficking in heroin & morphine, 2007 (countries reporting seizures of more than 10 kg)

21 21 2. Drugs Trafficking in cocaine, 2007 (countries reporting seizures of more than 10 kg)

22 22 2. Drugs Trafficking in amphetamines, 2007 (countries reporting seizures of more than 10 kg)

23 23 2. Drugs Illicit drugs and society issues Drug trafficking has fuelled and fuels several conflicts. Can the world stop drugs without stopping wars ? Can the world stop drugs without stopping wars ? When a part of an open society wants to use drugs, When a part of an open society wants to use drugs, can the authority and the laws effectively stop drug users? can the authority and the laws effectively stop drug users? In a society with a significant drug problem, In a society with a significant drug problem, what should be the correct definition what should be the correct definition of a drug addict citizen? of a drug addict citizen?

24 24 3. Illicit Arms Trade

25 Some estimates of arms trade * $ 10 billion - illegal arms trafficking $ 1-4 billion from trade in small weapons 2 million people involved in illicit arms trafficking 2000 US weapons smuggled into Mexico by drug traffickers daily illegally smuggled weapons in Kenya 1 mil lost/stolen light weapons end up on the black market 60% of the arms illegally trafficked are originated from a legal transaction Arms Trade * Federation of American Scientists: The Arms Sales Monitoring Project

26 Estimates of arms production * Estimates of arms production * Arms Trade *

27 Arms, people, politics, and violence issues Arms kill more than diseases, but they are men made. Do people and political power really want to get rid of armed violence among civilian population? What are the new definitions of the monopoly of force in a post-modern State ? Arms Trade

28 28 4. CBRN 4. CBRN* trafficking *Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Substances

29 IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database CBRN International Atomic Energy Agency

30 30 4. CBRN Source: IAEA ITDB Factsheet 2009

31 31 4. CBRN Source: IAEA ITDB Factsheet 2009

32 32 4. CBRN

33 33 5. Human Trafficking 5. Trafficking in Persons All data on human trafficking are extracted from UNICRI research

34 Trafficking in Persons A“modern-day slave trade that fuels corruption and organized crime, bringing with it the potential to weaken and destabilize fragile governments” Human Trafficking Source: NATO’s Policy on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings

35 Trafficking in Persons The ACT: the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, receipt of persons. The ACT: the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, receipt of persons. The MEANS: by means of threat or use of force, or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power, or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve consent of a person. The MEANS: by means of threat or use of force, or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power, or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve consent of a person. The PURPOSE: having control over another person The PURPOSE: having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation Human Trafficking

36 36 HUMAN TRAFFICKING, A GLOBAL PROBLEM COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN 5. Human Trafficking Source: “Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns,” UNODC, April Origin countries of human trafficking

37 37 HUMAN TRAFFICKING, A GLOBAL PROBLEM COUNTRIES OF DESTINATION 5. Human Trafficking Source: “Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns,” UNODC, April Destination countries of human trafficking

38 Severity of Human Trafficking People are trafficked from 127 countries People are trafficked from 127 countries to be exploited in 137 countries. (UNODC) Estimated number of persons in forced labour, Estimated number of persons in forced labour, including sexual exploitation, as a result of trafficking at any given time is 2.5 million. (ILO) Estimated annual profits made from the exploitation Estimated annual profits made from the exploitation at the global level are 31.7 billion US$. (ILO) Total financial cost of coercion to the workers affected, Total financial cost of coercion to the workers affected, excluding the victims of forced commercial sexual exploitation, is approximately US$ 21 billion. (ILO) Human Trafficking

39 Different forms of exploitation: Forced labour Forced labour Sexual exploitation Sexual exploitation Removal of organs and body parts Removal of organs and body parts Use for criminal activities Use for criminal activities Use for begging Use for begging Forced marriage Forced marriage Illicit adoption Illicit adoption Use for armed conflicts Use for armed conflicts Human Trafficking

40 40 Crimes related to trafficking in persons 5. Human Trafficking

41 41 Trafficking in persons affects all sectors 5. Human Trafficking

42 42 6. Counterfeiting All data on counterfeiting are from UNICRI research

43 43 Overview of the current situation Counterfeiting is a growing phenomenon and estimates on its dimensions are alarming According to OECD estimates, international trade in counterfeits would total USD 200 billion No region in the world is free from counterfeiting 6. Counterfeiting

44 44 In the European Union in % of seizures of foodstuff and beverages +98% of seizures of toys and games +51% of seizures of medicines +264% of seizures of cosmetics Significant increase for: clothing, electrical and, computer equipment, jewelry and watches 6. Counterfeiting

45 45 6. Counterfeiting

46 46 Risks for consumers 2006: More than 100 people dead in Panama because of a counterfeit cough syrup 2007: A Canadian woman died from metal poisoning after the ingestion of a counterfeit pill bought on the internet the ingestion of a counterfeit pill bought on the internet 2005: Counterfeit Raki killed more than 20 people in Turkey 2001: Counterfeit Vodka killed at least 60 people in Estonia 6. Counterfeiting

47 47 6. Counterfeiting 1.No one knows how big the counterfeiting problem really is. 2. Revenue losses are only one part of the equation. 3. Counterfeiting is a growing criminal enterprise that encompasses an everexpanding list of products. By Lynn G. Crutchfield

48 48 6. Counterfeiting. Counterfeiters are extremely difficult to find. 4. Counterfeiters are extremely difficult to find. 5. The internet is a well- established marketing tool established marketing tool and is contributing to the and is contributing to the proliferation of counterfeits. proliferation of counterfeits. 6. Counterfeiting is not a victimless crime. is not a victimless crime. 7. Protecting one’s brand is possible. is possible. By Lynn G. Crutchfield

49 49 7. Environmental Crime 7. Resource crimes and dumping of toxic waste

50 50 What is environmental crime? Five main areas of offence: illegal trade in wildlife and natural resources illegal trade in wildlife and natural resources dumping and illegal trade in hazardous waste dumping and illegal trade in hazardous waste illegal trade in ozone-depleting substances illegal trade in ozone-depleting substances illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing illegal logging and trade of timber illegal logging and trade of timber 7. Environmental Crime

51 51 7. Environmental Crime

52 52 7. Environmental Crime

53 53 7. Environmental Crime

54 54 Main challenges Scarce awareness and knowledge of the phenomenon Scarce awareness and knowledge of the phenomenon and poor resources assigned to law enforcement Insufficient regulation of the phenomenon Insufficient regulation of the phenomenon linked to insufficient sanctions Harm posed to people and natural resources Harm posed to people and natural resources Growing involvement of organized crime and its transnational dimension, linked to the low risk of detection Growing involvement of organized crime and its transnational dimension, linked to the low risk of detection High profits behind the phenomenon High profits behind the phenomenon Scarce international cooperation Scarce international cooperation 7. Environmental Crime

55 55 Dumping and illegal trade in hazardous waste The increased cost of safe disposal and stricter legislations have driven an export trade The increased cost of safe disposal and stricter legislations have driven an export trade to many of the world’s least developed countries Southern countries are now recipients of growing amounts of waste produced in the Northern countries Southern countries are now recipients of growing amounts of waste produced in the Northern countries Main destination countries: Main destination countries: Africa and, more recently, Eastern Europe and Asia 7. Environmental Crime

56 56 A specific category of hazardous waste: e-waste A growing phenomenon, particularly harming to human health and the environment A growing phenomenon, particularly harming to human health and the environment Mobile phones, PCs, TV sets, refrigerators are exported for disposal to countries other then the one of production or use, especially from western countries Mobile phones, PCs, TV sets, refrigerators are exported for disposal to countries other then the one of production or use, especially from western countries to Asia (in particular: China and India) and Africa Disguised as donations from developed countries Disguised as donations from developed countries to circumvent the laws banning the import of e-waste 7. Environmental Crime

57 57 8. Maritime Piracy

58 58 IMB Live Piracy Map Maritime Piracy

59 59 9. Cyber crime 9. Cyber-crime

60 Complaints of online crime, 2008 at the Internet Crime Complaint Center (USA) YEARCOMPLAINTSRECEIVED US$ LOSS , million , million , million , million , million Cyber crime

61 Major sources of financial loss due to computer crime and security breaches in Australia, ($ million) (AIC) Cyber crime

62 62 9. Cyber crime

63 63 9. Cyber crime

64 Financial crimes 10. Financial crimes: money laundering, fraud and corruption fraud and corruption

65 Financial crimes Major financial crimes Financial Crimes Corporate Fraud Securities and Commodities Fraud Health Care Fraud Mortgage Fraud Identity Theft Insurance Fraud Mass Marketing Fraud Money Laundering US Yearly Financial Crimes Report to the public

66 Financial crimes

67 Financial crimes

68 Financial crimes

69 Financial crimes

70 Financial crimes Corruption Is an obstacle to development, governance, human rights and the Rule of Law; Is the paste holding together the criminal-political nexus; TOC buys power, consent and impunity; TOC tends to target lower political and administrative levels and even buying elections. The UN Convention against Corruption provides good practices and should become a global tool to fight corruption.

71 Dr. Sandro Calvani Chairman of the Global Agenda Council on Illicit Trade Phone: Website: Thank you for your kind attention


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