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Sandro Calvani UNICRI Diretor

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Presentation on theme: "Sandro Calvani UNICRI Diretor"— Presentation transcript:

1 The impact of organized crime on development, economics and human rights
Sandro Calvani UNICRI Diretor International University College of Turin 29 June 2009

2 Table of contents Definition of crime
Global public goods Security and development Crime and economics Two collective security challenges: transnational organized crime - terrorism Transnational organized crime Obstacles for the international community Terrorism Trafficking in weapons and in human beings International instruments UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Conclusions 2

3 Current impact of crime
Definition of crime An act (of commission and omission) violating a law, hence deemed illegal, to which the judicial system attributes a penalty. Current impact of crime What impact does crime have nowadays on the complex interconnections between economics, development and rights? 3

4 Security Development Economy Human rights
Global public goods: Security Development Economy Human rights 4

5 Security and development are interdependent
Crimes against natural or cultural heritage can discourage foreign investment Illegally exploiting natural resources of countries that are experiencing war or that are in the process of developing can seriously hinder reconstruction efforts. Corruption as an obstacles to increasing wealth poses severe limitations on development. 5

6 Crime and Economics Raising interconnections between organized crime and economic crimes Speculative manoeuvres concerning goods in the economic and financial realm Building without planning permissions and illicit waste trafficking Counterfeiting (technology, software, banknotes, pharmaceuticals, cars, cigarettes, watches…) Abuse of public powers (corruption, extortion, embezzlement) 6

7 Collective security: two main challenges
Transnational organized crime Terrorism 8

8 Globalization of economy and transnationality of crime

9 Transnational organized crime
A direct threat to States and to human security Among the main transnational criminal activities: drug trafficking worth $ billion (as much as some countries’ GDP) contributes to the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS revenues from opium industry finance terrorist groups (i.e. Afghanistan) 9

10 Emerging crimes as a threat to a development, economics and human rights

11 Emerging crimes Crime Bln. $ Crime Bln. $ 11 1. Marijuana 141.8
2. Counterfeit Technology 3. Cocaine 4. Opium/Heroin 5. Web Video Piracy 6. Smuggled Cigarettes 7. Software Piracy 8. Counterfeit Pharm. Drugs 40 9. Human Trafficking 10. Amphetamines 11. Animals smuggling 12. Movie Piracy 13. Illegal Fishing 14. Ecstasy 15. Illegal Logging Crime Bln. $ 16. Counterfeit Auto Parts 12 17. Trash Smuggling 11 18. Human Smuggling 10 19. Arms Trafficking 10 20. Art Smuggling 10 21. Counterfeit Clothes 8.24 22. Gas and Oil Smuggling 6.2 23. Music Piracy 4.5 24. Counterfeit Cigarettes 4 25. Pirated Mobile Phone Entert 3.4 26. Counterfeit Cosmetics 3.0 27. Video Game Piracy 3.0 28. Counterfeit Airline Parts 2.0 29. Cable Piracy 30. International Adoptions 1.3 11

12 Emerging crimes Crime Mln. $ Crime Mln. $ 12 31. Counterfeit Shoes 920
32. Counterfeit Watches 655 33. Counterfeit pesticides 650 34. Book Piracy 35. Counterfeit Sports Mem 36. Kidnap and Ransom 37. Counterfeit Alcohol 38. Diamond Smuggling 280 39. Counterfeit Toys Crime Mln. $ 40. Counterfeit Cuban Cigars 100 41. Nuclear Smuggling 100 42. Counterfeit Purses 70 43. Counterfeit Dollars 61 44. Organ Trafficking 50 45. Counterfeit Lighters 42 46. Counterfeit Batteries 23 47. Human Tissue and Parts 6 48. Counterfeit Money Orders 3.7 12

13 Obstacles for the international community
1) Insufficient cooperation between States 2) Weak coordination between international agencies 3) Inadequate efforts of many countries Also complicated by structural and organizational changes: from formal hierarchies to fluid networks 13

14 Terrorism Threatens the core values of the United Nations Charter:
respect for human rights rule of law humanitarian law protecting civilians tolerance between peoples and nations peaceful resolution of conflicts 14

15 Terrorism thrives in contexts of:
regional conflict foreign occupation State failure despair humiliation poverty political oppression extremism human rights abuses 15

16 Mass-casualty attacks
New factors heightening the threat of terrorism: Armed non-governmental networks with global outreach and sophisticated capacities (i.e. Al-Qaeda) Mass-casualty attacks 16

17 Trafficking Trafficking in weapons and violence in war-torn countries. Human trafficking and the difficulties in distinguishing illegal phenomena within migration movements. International instruments and the search for a common international definition of terrorism and victims’ protection. 17

18 Arms trafficking $ 10 billion - illegal arms trafficking
$ 1-4 billion - illegal trade in small weapons 2 million people involved in illicit arms trafficking 2000 U.S. weapons smuggled into Mexico by drug traffickers daily illegally smuggled weapons in Kenya 1 million lost/stolen light weapons end up on the black market 60% of the arms illegally trafficked originate from a legal transaction 18

19 Human trafficking and distinguishing illegal phenomena in migrations
Trafficking in persons: coercion (without victims’ consent) exploitation (for labour or sexual purposes) may be transnational or internal Smuggling in persons: consensual cross-border ends with arrival at destination 19

20 Human trafficking 2.7 million victims a year
80% of the victims are women 50% of the victims are minor $ 9.5 billion turnover a year Fonte: Vienna Forum To Fight Human Trafficking, Feb 2008; TIP report 2007 20

21 International instruments
1945 United Nations Charter 1948 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1951 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 1966 The UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1969 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination 1976 The UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1981 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women 1984 UN Convention Against Torture 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child 2002 Rome Stature on the International Criminal Court 21

22 International instruments:
The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Palermo-2000) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Air and Sea, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime 22

23 Conclusions - To contrast organized crime, must address the transnational dimension - Need COOPERATION 23

24 Thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention 23

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