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The impact of organized crime on development, economics and human rights Sandro Calvani UNICRI Diretor International University College of Turin 29 June.

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Presentation on theme: "The impact of organized crime on development, economics and human rights Sandro Calvani UNICRI Diretor International University College of Turin 29 June."— Presentation transcript:

1 The impact of organized crime on development, economics and human rights Sandro Calvani UNICRI Diretor International University College of Turin 29 June 2009

2 Table of contents Definition of crimeDefinition of crime Global public goodsGlobal public goods Security and developmentSecurity and development Crime and economicsCrime and economics Two collective security challenges: - transnational organized crime - terrorismTwo collective security challenges: - transnational organized crime - terrorism Transnational organized crimeTransnational organized crime 2 Obstacles for the international community Obstacles for the international community Terrorism Terrorism Trafficking in weapons and in human beings Trafficking in weapons and in human beings International instruments International instruments UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Conclusions Conclusions

3 Definition of crime An act (of commission and omission) violating a law, hence deemed illegal, to which the judicial system attributes a penalty. Current impact of crime What impact does crime have nowadays on the complex interconnections between economics, development and rights? 3

4 Security Development Economy Human rights Global public goods: 4

5 Security and development are interdependent Crimes against natural or cultural heritage can discourage foreign investment Illegally exploiting natural resources of countries that are experiencing war or that are in the process of developing can seriously hinder reconstruction efforts. Corruption as an obstacles to increasing wealth poses severe limitations on development. 5

6 Raising interconnections between organized crime and economic crimes Speculative manoeuvres concerning goods in the economic and financial realm Building without planning permissions and illicit waste trafficking Counterfeiting (technology, software, banknotes, pharmaceuticals, cars, cigarettes, watches…) Abuse of public powers (corruption, extortion, embezzlement) 6 Crime and Economics

7 Collective security: two main challenges Transnational organized crime Terrorism 8

8 Globalization of economy and transnationality of crime 7

9 Transnational organized crime A direct threat to States and to human security Among the main transnational criminal activities: drug trafficking worth $ 300-500 billion (as much as some countries’ GDP) contributes to the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS revenues from opium industry finance terrorist groups (i.e. Afghanistan) 9

10 Emerging crimes as a threat to a development, economics and human rights 10

11 Emerging crimes 11 Crime Bln. $ 1. Marijuana 141.8 2. Counterfeit Technology 100 3. Cocaine 70.45 4. Opium/Heroin 64.82 5. Web Video Piracy 60 6. Smuggled Cigarettes 50 7. Software Piracy 47.8 8. Counterfeit Pharm. Drugs 40 9. Human Trafficking 32 10. Amphetamines 28.25 11. Animals smuggling 20 12. Movie Piracy 18.2 13. Illegal Fishing 16.5 14. Ecstasy 16.07 15. Illegal Logging 15 CrimeBln. $ 16. Counterfeit Auto Parts 12 17. Trash Smuggling11 18. Human Smuggling10 19. Arms Trafficking10 20. Art Smuggling10 21. Counterfeit Clothes8.24 22. Gas and Oil Smuggling 6.2 23. Music Piracy4.5 24. Counterfeit Cigarettes4 25. Pirated Mobile Phone Entert3.4 26. Counterfeit Cosmetics3.0 27. Video Game Piracy3.0 28. Counterfeit Airline Parts 2.0 29. Cable Piracy1.54 30. International Adoptions1.3

12 Emerging crimes 12 Crime Mln. $ 31. Counterfeit Shoes920 32. Counterfeit Watches655 33. Counterfeit pesticides650 34. Book Piracy600 35. Counterfeit Sports Mem. 500 36. Kidnap and Ransom500 37. Counterfeit Alcohol300 38. Diamond Smuggling280 39. Counterfeit Toys131 CrimeMln. $ 40. Counterfeit Cuban Cigars100 41. Nuclear Smuggling100 42. Counterfeit Purses70 43. Counterfeit Dollars61 44. Organ Trafficking50 45. Counterfeit Lighters42 46. Counterfeit Batteries 23 47. Human Tissue and Parts6 48. Counterfeit Money Orders3.7

13 Obstacles for the international community 1) Insufficient cooperation between States 2) Weak coordination between international agencies 3) Inadequate efforts of many countries Also complicated by structural and organizational changes: from formal hierarchies to fluid networks 13

14 Terrorism Threatens the core values of the United Nations Charter: respect for human rights rule of law humanitarian law protecting civilians tolerance between peoples and nations peaceful resolution of conflicts 14

15 Terrorism thrives in contexts of:  despair  humiliation  poverty  political oppression  extremism  human rights abuses  regional conflict  foreign occupation  State failure 15

16 New factors heightening the threat of terrorism: Armed non-governmental networks with global outreach and sophisticated capacities (i.e. Al-Qaeda) Mass-casualty attacks 16

17 Trafficking in weapons and violence in war-torn countries. Human trafficking and the difficulties in distinguishing illegal phenomena within migration movements. International instruments and the search for a common international definition of terrorism and victims’ protection. 17 Trafficking

18 $ 10 billion - illegal arms trafficking $ 1-4 billion - illegal trade in small weapons 2 million people involved in illicit arms trafficking 2000 U.S. weapons smuggled into Mexico by drug traffickers daily 140.000 illegally smuggled weapons in Kenya 1 million lost/stolen light weapons end up on the black market 60% of the arms illegally trafficked originate from a legal transaction Arms trafficking Arms trafficking 18

19 Human trafficking and distinguishing illegal phenomena in migrations Trafficking in persons: coercion (without victims’ consent) exploitation (for labour or sexual purposes) may be transnational or internal Smuggling in persons: consensual cross-border ends with arrival at destination 19

20 Human trafficking 2.7 million victims a year 80% of the victims are women 50% of the victims are minor $ 9.5 billion turnover a year 20 Fonte: Vienna Forum To Fight Human Trafficking, Feb 2008; TIP report 2007

21  1945 United Nations Charter  1948 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  1951 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide  1966 The UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights  1969 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination  1976 The UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights  1981 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women  1984 UN Convention Against Torture  1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child  2002 Rome Stature on the International Criminal Court International instruments 21

22 International instruments: The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Palermo-2000) (Palermo-2000) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Air and Sea, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime 22

23 - To contrast organized crime, must address the transnational dimension - Need COOPERATION Conclusions 23

24 www.unicri.it Thank you for your attention 23


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