4ELECTROSTATICS – the study of electric charges, forces and fields Two types of charges exists, arbitrarily namedPOSITIVE and NEGATIVEBy Benjamin FranklinSo what is positive and what is negative?
5We know that charged particle exist in atoms Electrons are responsible for negative chargesand Protons for positive chargeBenjamin Franklin did not know about the existence of these particles but, he did investigate the behavior of static discharge and lightning.
6The charge of a single electron = -1.6 x 10-19 C The SI unit of charge is the coulomb (C).1 C = 6.25 x 1018 electrons or protonsThe charge carried by the electron is represented by the symbol -e, and the charge carried by the proton is +e. A third particle, which carries no electrical charge, is the neutron.The charge of a singleelectron = -1.6 x CThe charge of a singleproton = +1.6 x C
7Ben knew that if certain electrically neutral objects are rubbed, they can become charged. For example; when rubber is rubbed with a wool cloth, both become charged.or a comb through hairThe rubber scrapes electrons from fur atoms. So the rubber is negatively charged and the cloth is positively charged.
8Ben also knew that a charge separation occurs when a glass rod is rubbed with a silk cloth In the case of the glass and silk, the glass rod loses negative charge and becomes positively charged while the silk cloth gains negative charge and therefore becomes negatively charged.
9Ben observed that like charged object repel & unlike charges attract Ben experimented with the interactions between the charge objects. He suspended one and brought other charged objects near…Ben observed that like chargedobject repel & unlike charges attractrepelattractrepel
10PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE In the process of rubbing two solid objects together, electrical charges are moved around, not created or destroyed.So… The negative charges are transferred between the two objects. Leaving one with an excess of positive charge and the other with an excess of negative charge. The quantity of excess charge on each object is exactly the same.A POSITIVE charge is a SHORTAGE of electronsA NEGATIVE charge is an EXCESS of electrons
11An electroscope is a device that detects static charge. Positively chargedNegatively chargedThe metal leaves of the electroscope move apart if a charged object is brought near the knob. Benjamin Franklin used a similar device when he investigated charges.Demo
12A material can be an electric … insulatorAn insulator is a material in which the electrons are tightly held by the nucleus and are not free to move through the material.Examples of good insulators are: glass, rubber, plastic and dry wood.conductorA conductor is a material through which electrons are free to move through the material.Examples of good conductors are: metals, such as silver, copper, gold and mercury.
13Objects become charged by… FrictionElectrons are rubbed off one insulator on to another insulatorInductionCharging an object WITHOUT touching a charged objectCharging by CONTACT with a charged objectConduction
14FrictionElectrons are rubbed off one insulator on to another insulator
15Charging by Conduction A charged object touches the uncharged object and some electrons leave the charged rod and move spread over sphere.Charging by conduction results in an object with the same charge
16To understand the last way to charge an object, we need to look at what happens to a neutral object when a charged object is brought near.Neutral objects can be temporarily attracted to charged objects by a process called POLARIZATON.
17Polarization occurs because the electrons are attracted or repelled by the charged object. This result is in a polarization or temporary separation of the charge, and attraction results.Electrons are free to move in metals.Nuclei remain in place; electrons move to bottom
18The resulting charge on the object is opposite Charging by Induction polarizationgroundingpermanent chargeThe rod does not touch the sphere. It pushes electrons out of the back side of the sphere and down the wire to ground. The ground wire is disconnected to prevent the return of the electrons from ground, then the rod is removed.The resulting charge on the object is opposite
19Grounding is allowing charges to move freely along a connection between a conductor and the ground. The Earth (the ground) is a practically infinite reservoir of electric charge.Here a positively charge rod attracts electrons from the ground into the electroscopeHere a negatively charge rod repels electrons into the ground from the electroscope
20To review…Induction results in an OPPOSITE CHARGE
24Applications of Electrostatic charging Fine mist of negatively charged gold particles adhere to positively charged protein on fingerprint.Negatively charged paint adheres to positively charged metal.
30COULOMB’S LAWCoulomb’s Law states that two point charges exert a force (F) on one another that is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of the charges (q) and inversely proportional to the square of the distance (r) between their centers. The equation is:F = electrostatic force (N)q = charge (C)k = 9x109 N m2/C2r = separation between charges (m)
31Example 1Two negatively charged balloons are 0.70m apart.If the charge of each is 2.0 x 10-6C, What is the electric force between the two balloons?q1 = q2 = 2.0 x 10-6 Cd = r = 0.70 mF = 9.0 x 10 9 N m2/C2 (2.0 x 10-6 C)2(0.70m)2F = NAn attracting or repelling force?
32Example 2:Two equally charged balloons repel each other with a force of 4.0 x 10-3 N. If they are m apart, what is the charge of the each balloon?F = 4.0 x 10-3 Nd = mq2 = Fd2kq2 = (4x10-3N)(0.015m)2(9x109Nm2/C2)q1 = q2 = 1.0 x 10-8C
33= 120 N to the right FR = 80N + 120N = 200 N, to the right q1 = -8 μC Example 3 : Two charges q1 = -8 μC and q2= +12 μC are placed 120mm apart in the air. What is the resultant force on a third charge q3 = -4 μC placed midway between the other charges?FRq1 = -8 μCq2= +12 μCq3 = -4 μCr = mF1F2-q1-q3+q2= 80 N to the right= 120 N to the rightFR = 80N + 120N= 200 N, to the right