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Electric Forces and Electric Fields. The primary particle that carries charge (and therefore can be lost or gained) in an atom is a/an: 1. Proton 2. Neutron.

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Presentation on theme: "Electric Forces and Electric Fields. The primary particle that carries charge (and therefore can be lost or gained) in an atom is a/an: 1. Proton 2. Neutron."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electric Forces and Electric Fields

2 The primary particle that carries charge (and therefore can be lost or gained) in an atom is a/an: 1. Proton 2. Neutron 3. Electron

3 When a positively charged object comes close to an negatively charged object, the negative object will: 1. Be attracted 2. Be repelled 3. Do nothing

4 When a positively charged object comes close to an neutral object, the neutral object will: 1. Be attracted 2. Be repelled 3. Do nothing

5 Anytime an object at rest starts to move, what must be present to cause it to move? 1. Difference in electric charge 2. Electricity 3. A force 4. Matter

6 A Bit of History Ancient Greeks Ancient Greeks Observed electric and magnetic phenomena as early as 700 BC Observed electric and magnetic phenomena as early as 700 BC Found that amber, when rubbed, became “electrified” and attracted pieces of straw or feathers Found that amber, when rubbed, became “electrified” and attracted pieces of straw or feathers

7 Properties of Electric Charges Two types of charges exist Two types of charges exist They are called positive and negative They are called positive and negative Arbitrarily named by Benjamin Franklin Arbitrarily named by Benjamin Franklin Like charges repel and unlike charges attract one another Like charges repel and unlike charges attract one another

8 More Properties of Charge Positive charge – protons Positive charge – protons Negative charge – electrons Negative charge – electrons Gaining or losing electrons is how an object becomes charged; protons remain with the nucleus Gaining or losing electrons is how an object becomes charged; protons remain with the nucleus

9 A little review: What are some conservable quantities in physics? What are some conservable quantities in physics? Mass Mass Momentum Momentum Energy Energy Charge Charge

10 Conservation of Charge Electric charge is always conserved Electric charge is always conserved Charge is not created, only exchanged Charge is not created, only exchanged Objects become charged because negative charge is transferred from one object to another Objects become charged because negative charge is transferred from one object to another

11 More review: A force is …? A force is …? Anything that produces acceleration or a change in motion. Anything that produces acceleration or a change in motion. Contact vs. Field forces? Contact vs. Field forces? Contact: require matter to be in contact (ex. friction) Contact: require matter to be in contact (ex. friction) Field: matter not required (ex. gravitational, electrical, magnetic) Field: matter not required (ex. gravitational, electrical, magnetic)

12 Fig. 15.1, p. 467

13 Properties of Charge, final Charge is quantized Charge is quantized All charge is a multiple of a fundamental unit of charge, symbolized by e All charge is a multiple of a fundamental unit of charge, symbolized by e Electrons have a charge of –e Electrons have a charge of –e Protons have a charge of +e Protons have a charge of +e The SI unit of charge is the Coulomb (C) The SI unit of charge is the Coulomb (C) 1 e = 1.6 x C 1 e = 1.6 x C

14 Fig. 15.T1, p. 472

15 Conductors Conductors are materials in which the electric charges move freely Conductors are materials in which the electric charges move freely Copper, aluminum and silver are good conductors Copper, aluminum and silver are good conductors

16 Insulators Insulators are materials in which electric charges do not move freely Insulators are materials in which electric charges do not move freely Glass and rubber are examples of insulators Glass and rubber are examples of insulators When insulators are charged by rubbing, only the rubbed area becomes charged When insulators are charged by rubbing, only the rubbed area becomes charged There is no tendency for the charge to move into other regions of the material as opposed to conductors There is no tendency for the charge to move into other regions of the material as opposed to conductors

17 Three Methods of Charging Friction Friction Conduction (or Contact) Conduction (or Contact) Induction Induction

18 Charging by Friction The act of rubbing creates friction which removes or adds electrons to the objects involved in the friction. The act of rubbing creates friction which removes or adds electrons to the objects involved in the friction.

19 Charging by Conduction A charged object (the rod) is placed in contact with another object (the sphere) A charged object (the rod) is placed in contact with another object (the sphere) Some electrons on the rod can move to the sphere Some electrons on the rod can move to the sphere When the rod is removed, the sphere is left with a charge When the rod is removed, the sphere is left with a charge The object being charged is always left with a charge having the same sign as the object doing the charging The object being charged is always left with a charge having the same sign as the object doing the charging

20 Charging by Induction A negatively charged rubber rod is brought near an uncharged sphere A negatively charged rubber rod is brought near an uncharged sphere The charges in the sphere are redistributed The charges in the sphere are redistributed Some of the electrons in the sphere are repelled from the electrons in the rod Some of the electrons in the sphere are repelled from the electrons in the rod

21 Charging by Induction, final The wire to ground is removed, the sphere is left with an excess of induced positive charge The wire to ground is removed, the sphere is left with an excess of induced positive charge The positive charge on the sphere is evenly distributed due to the repulsion between the positive charges The positive charge on the sphere is evenly distributed due to the repulsion between the positive charges Charging by induction requires no contact with the object inducing the charge Charging by induction requires no contact with the object inducing the charge

22 A charged rod is brought close to a neutral electroscope. When touched by the rod, the leaves both become positive and repel. The rod must have been … 1. Positively charged 2. Negatively charged 3. Not enough information to tell

23 A neutral electroscope is charged by induction. When touched by the rod, the leaves both become negative and repel. The rod must have been … 1. Positively charged 2. Negatively charged 3. Not enough information to tell

24 A postively charged rod is brought close to a neutral electroscope to charge it by induction. The top of the electroscope must be: 1. Positively charged 2. Negatively charged 3. Not enough information to tell

25 Coulomb’s Law Mathematically, Mathematically, k c is called the Coulomb Constant k c is called the Coulomb Constant k c = 8.99 x 10 9 N m 2 /C 2 k c = 8.99 x 10 9 N m 2 /C 2

26 Coulomb’s Law Typical charges can be in the µC range Typical charges can be in the µC range Remember, Coulombs must be used in the equation Remember, Coulombs must be used in the equation Remember that force is a vector quantity Remember that force is a vector quantity It is attractive if the charges are of opposite signs and repulsive if the charges have the same signs (you must note if it is attractive or repulsive after the magnitude – 3 N attractive) It is attractive if the charges are of opposite signs and repulsive if the charges have the same signs (you must note if it is attractive or repulsive after the magnitude – 3 N attractive)

27 How is the magnitude of the charges proportional to the electric force between them? 1. Directly 2. Inversely 3. Exponentially

28 How is the square of the distance between two charges proportional to the electric force between them? 1. Directly 2. Inversely 3. Exponentially

29 Coulomb’s Law It is attractive if the charges are of opposite signs and repulsive if the charges have the same signs (you must note if it is It is attractive if the charges are of opposite signs and repulsive if the charges have the same signs (you must note if it is

30 Things that make you go, “Hmmmm…” A) The electric force is significantly stronger than the gravitational force. However, although we are attracted to Earth by gravity, we do not usually feel the effects of the electric force. A) The electric force is significantly stronger than the gravitational force. However, although we are attracted to Earth by gravity, we do not usually feel the effects of the electric force. Explain why. Explain why.

31 B) An ordinary nickel contains about electrons, all repelling one another. B) An ordinary nickel contains about electrons, all repelling one another. Why don’t these electrons fly off the nickel? Why don’t these electrons fly off the nickel?

32 C) When the distance between two negatively charged balloons is doubled, by what factor does the repulsive force between them change? C) When the distance between two negatively charged balloons is doubled, by what factor does the repulsive force between them change?

33 Electrical Force Compared to Gravitational Force Both are inverse square laws Both are inverse square laws The mathematical form of both laws is the same The mathematical form of both laws is the same Electrical forces can be either attractive or repulsive Electrical forces can be either attractive or repulsive Gravitational forces are always attractive Gravitational forces are always attractive

34 If all other variables are held constant, is the electric force or the gravitational force greater for two oppositely charged objects? 1. Gravitational Force 2. Electric Force 3. Same 4. Unable to tell

35 Compare Gravitational and Electric Force Calculate the gravitational force as well as the electric force for an electron and a proton which are located 1 cm from each other. Calculate the gravitational force as well as the electric force for an electron and a proton which are located 1 cm from each other.

36 Electrical Field An electric field is said to exist in the region of space around a charged object An electric field is said to exist in the region of space around a charged object When another charged object enters this electric field, the field exerts a force on the second charged object When another charged object enters this electric field, the field exerts a force on the second charged object

37 Electric Fields The concept of a field is used to describe any quantity that has a value for all points in space. The concept of a field is used to describe any quantity that has a value for all points in space. You can think of the field as the way forces are transmitted between objects. You can think of the field as the way forces are transmitted between objects. Charge creates an electric field that creates forces on other charges. Charge creates an electric field that creates forces on other charges.

38 Gravitational Field Mass creates a gravitational field that exerts forces on other masses. Mass creates a gravitational field that exerts forces on other masses.

39 Gravitational vs. Electric Fields Gravitational forces are far weaker than electric forces. Gravitational forces are far weaker than electric forces.

40 Van de Graaff Generator An electrostatic generator designed and built by Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929 An electrostatic generator designed and built by Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929 Charge is transferred to the dome by means of a rotating belt Charge is transferred to the dome by means of a rotating belt Eventually an electrostatic discharge takes place Eventually an electrostatic discharge takes place

41 Electrical Field An electric field is said to exist in the region of space around a charged object An electric field is said to exist in the region of space around a charged object When another charged object enters this electric field, the field exerts a force on the second charged object When another charged object enters this electric field, the field exerts a force on the second charged object

42 Electric Field, cont. A charged particle, with charge Q, produces an electric field in the region of space around it A charged particle, with charge Q, produces an electric field in the region of space around it A small test charge, q o, placed in the field, will experience a force A small test charge, q o, placed in the field, will experience a force

43 Electric Field Lines Electric field is a vector. Electric field is a vector. There are electric field lines that help visualize this field and were introduced by Michael Faraday There are electric field lines that help visualize this field and were introduced by Michael Faraday

44 Electric Field Lines Electric field lines are drawn to visualize electric field strength and direction. Electric field lines are drawn to visualize electric field strength and direction. Introduced by Michael Faraday Introduced by Michael Faraday

45 Electric Field Line Rules Electric Field Lines are drawn pointing in the way that a positive point charge would move when placed by the charged object. Electric Field Lines are drawn pointing in the way that a positive point charge would move when placed by the charged object. Field lines can never cross Field lines can never cross Electric fields exist even in the Electric fields exist even in the absence of a point charge.

46 Electric Field Line Rules The direction of the electric field is in the same direction as the electric force on the point charge. The direction of the electric field is in the same direction as the electric force on the point charge. The relative strength of the electric field is proportional to the number of field lines in a given location. The relative strength of the electric field is proportional to the number of field lines in a given location. Electric field lines accumulate as sharp points more than rounded objects. Electric field lines accumulate as sharp points more than rounded objects.

47 Proton + + A positive test charge would be repelled by the field

48 Electron - + A positive test charge would be attracted by the field

49 Opposite charges attract Opposite charges attract

50 Like Charges repel Like Charges repel

51 Electric Field Lines for a Dipole

52 Electric Field for Parallel Plate Capacitor

53 Summary of Electric Field Lines

54 Electric Potential Energy of a Charge Wants to move when it has high PE Wants to move when it has high PE Point b Point b PE = max PE = max KE = min KE = min Point a Point a PE = min PE = min KE = max KE = max

55 Electric Field Intensity Equation E = F/q E = F/q F is the force in Newtons acting on the test charge q in coulombs. F is the force in Newtons acting on the test charge q in coulombs. Combined with Coulomb’s law, E = kQ/r 2

56 Electric Fields Between Charges – Superposition Principle Find “E” for each Find “E” for each charge, add all together. E T =E 1 +E 2 +E 3 …


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