Presentation on theme: "Electrostatics. The History of Electrostatics Electricity has been studied since the Greeks Benjamin Franklin made 1st major scientific contributions."— Presentation transcript:
The History of Electrostatics Electricity has been studied since the Greeks Benjamin Franklin made 1st major scientific contributions about electricity.
Benjamin Franklin Ben proved that lightning is “static electricity” Imagined electricity as type of invisible fluid present in all matter. When matter contained too little, it was “negatively” charged. When it had an excess, it was “positively” charged
What is an electric charge? Electric charges exist w/in atoms. Atom Neutral + charge (protons) = -charge (electrons) Transferring electrons cause an atom to gain/lose charge Like charges repel, opposite charges attract.
Subatomic Particles Type of Particle Charge (in C)Mass (Kg) Proton+1.6 x x Electron-1.6 x x Neutron01.67x C => Coulomb SI measurement for electric charge
Conservation of Charge Charge is not created nor destroyed, it is only transferred from one object to another. * + and - charges are separated through a transfer of electrons. *Compare this to The Laws of Conservation of Momentum, Matter, and Mass.
Conductors and Insulators Electric insulator A material in which a charge does not move easily. Glass, dry wood, most plastics, cloth, and dry air are all good insulators. Electric conductor A material through which a charge will move easily Metals are good conductors because at least one electron from each atom can easily be removed.
3 Ways to Charge an Object Friction Conduction or contact Induction The Law of Conservation of Charge states that even after an object is charged, the combined total charge remains the same.
Charging by Friction 2 neutral objects are rubbed together, each can become charged. Electrons are transferred from the balloon to the hair.
Electricity by Friction
Charging by Conduction or Contact Charging a neutral body by touching it with a charged body. Run a charged comb through your hair, it polarizes the neutral dandruff and pulls it towards the comb.
Electricity by Conduction
Charging by Induction Charging an object without touching it – A charged object is needed to charge an object by induction. – There is never any contact made between the charged object and the object being charged. – Only conductors can be charged by the induction.
Charging by Induction
Different Types of Lightning
Coulomb’s Law Electric Static Force Equation F e = K q 1 q 2 / r 2 UNITS – Charge (q) measured in coulombs (C) Proton charge +1.6 x Electron charge -1.6 x – Distance (r) measured in meters – Force (F) in Newtons – Coulomb’s Constant (K) = × 10 9 N·m 2 /C 2NmC Although Force is a vector quantity, Coulomb’s law does NOT give a direction
Similarities Between Coulomb’s Law and Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
Similarities and Differences Between Coulomb’s Law and Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Both are inverse square laws, the magnitude of the force is dependent on the distance between the two objects Newton’s constant is much smaller than Coulomb’s, oftentimes the electrostatic force is much larger than gravitational force. Gravitational force affects objects over greater distances; electrostatic force is released before it grows too large.