3Chemistry Review Atoms are small particles that make up matter Atoms are neutral when they have equal numbers of ______________and _____________Atoms can lose electrons, because electrons are located in the _________________Protons are in the _______________and do not leave the atomWhen atoms gain electrons, they become _____________ charged ionsWhen atoms lose electrons, they become ______________ charged ions
4Electric forces and charges The electric force is one of four fundamental forces.The electric force is a field force.The electric force is the result of the interaction between electric charges.Explore-Show Van de Graff generator. After briefly demonstrating its properties, show how it exerts a force on a piece of paper. Ask, “what is VDGG doing to paper?” (A- Applying a force; paper is accelerated.)(1)Ask what fundamental forces are. Ask what kind of force electricity must be. Hint: It doesn’t have to touch the paper.
7Properties of Electric Charge There are two kinds of electric charges.Protons have a positive charge; electrons negative.Opposite charges attract; Like charges repel.Bring uncharged rubber rod near electroscope. Show what happens. Charge rubber rod with fur. Bring near electroscope. Touch rod to electroscope. Ask what happens. Ask why. Answer- Something must have gotten transferred from fur to rod and then from rod to electroscope.Discharge electroscope. Then rub glass rod with silk. Touch electroscope. Show how electroscope gets charged again. Then show how charged rubber rod now reduces charge on electroscope. What does that tell us? Answer- Might be two kinds of “something.”
8Properties of Electric Charge Electric charge is conserved.When a neutral atom gives up an electron, it becomes a positive ion.The electron is the smallest unit of charge that can be isolatedAKA elementary charge-+Ask if rod repelled anything before we rubbed it. Ask if silk did. Ask what that means.(2)Relate Millikan’s experiment.(3)
9Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material that allows charges to flow easily throughout the material.Most metals are conductors.An insulators is a material that does not allow charges to flow easily throughout the material.Glass, rubber, silk and plastic are examples of insulators.Day 2: Engage- Display VDG demos.Explain- Go over above.
10Transfer of Electric Charge: Contact – (friction and Conduction) Conductors and insulators can be charged by contact.Example- Rubbing rubber rod with fur, glass rod with silk. = charging by frictionDemonstrate this method of charging.
16LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE During any process, the net electric charge of an isolated system remains constant (is conserved).
17What is happening in this diagram There are two kinds of electric chargeThe two balloons must have the same charge and as a result, repel each otherlike charges repelA rubbed balloon and your hair do not have the same charge and as a result, they are attracted to each otherUnlike charges attract- hair will have positive charges and the balloon will have a a net negative charge
18III - SemiconductorsThese materials have properties of both insulators and conductors.Silicon and Germanium are examples of semiconductors used in electrical devises.In their pure state, semiconductors are insulators. The careful addition of specific atoms as impurities can dramatically increase the semiconductors ability to conduct electric charge.
19VI - Superconductors These materials appear to show no resistance The electrons passing through a super conductor generate no heatEx. include metals that are perfect conductors when at or below certain temperatures.These diagrams show magnets levitating over a superconductor at extremely low temperaturesThis photo shows a magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. A persistent electric current flows on the surface of the superconductor, effectively forming an electromagnet that repels the magnet. The expulsion of an electric field from a superconductor is known as the Meissner Effect. (Credit: Image courtesy of DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory
21Electric ForceWhen two charged objects are brought close together, they may experience forces of attraction or repulsion.The closer the two objects are to each other, the stronger the force between them.The greater the mass (number) of the charges the stronger the force between them
22Magnitude and direction of the electric force depends on: The amount of charge carried by each object.Charge is measured in Coulombs (C).An electron (negative elementary charge) has a charge (q) of x C.A proton (positive elementary charge) has a charge (q) of 1.60 x C.
23Coulomb’s LawThe force between 2 charged objects can be calculated using coulomb’s LawKc = 8.99 X 109 N.m2/C2
24Fundamental forces of nature Note the similarities and differences between gravitational force and electrical force𝐹 𝑔 =𝐺 𝑚 1 𝑚 2 𝑟 only attractive, can’t be shielded𝐹 𝑒 =𝑘𝑐 𝑞 1 𝑞 2 𝑟 both attractive and repulsive,can be shieldedThese are two of the four fundamental forces of nature
26Inverse square of distance –complete the chart Original dNew dNew/orig.Change indistancereduceinverseSquareChange in Fg102020/102/11/2¼ x10/204x50586425
27Example 1What is the magnitude of the electric force between a proton and an electron in a hydrogen atom? The two particles are separated by a distance of 5.3 x m on average.G: q1 = x C, q2 = 1.60 x C, r = 5.3 x m, Kc = 8.99 x 109 N.m2/C2U: Felectric = ?E:S:S: 8.2 x 10-8 NAn attractive force!!
28Example 2: A Model of the Hydrogen Atom In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the electron is in orbit about the nuclear proton at a radius of 5.29x10-11m. Determine the speed of the electron, assuming the orbit to be circular.G: 𝑟=5.29𝑥10−11, 𝑞 1 =1.6𝑥10−19𝐶, 𝑘𝑐=8.99𝑥109𝑁.𝑚2/𝐶2, 𝑞 2 =1.6𝑥10−19𝐶𝑚𝑒=9.11𝑥10−31𝑘𝑔U: 𝑣=?E: 𝐹 𝑒 = 𝑘 𝑐 𝑞 1 𝑞 2 𝑟 2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐹=𝑚 𝑎 𝑐 = 𝑚𝑣 2 𝑟S: 𝐹 𝑒 = 8.99×109×1.6×10−19×1.6×10−19 ( 5.29×10−19) 2= 8.22×10−8 𝑁
29Class assignment Due By the end of class will not accept late work
30Section Check SECTION CHECK Which of the following statements about charges is true?A. Charges are created by gaining electrons.B. Charges are destroyed by losing electrons.C. Charges are separated through a transfer of electrons.D. Charges cannot be created, destroyed, or separated.
31Section Check SECTION CHECK What will happen if a positively charged rod is suspended freely in air and another positively charged rod is brought near the suspended rod?A. The more you bring the rod closer to the suspended rod, the more it will attract.B. The more you bring the rod closer to the suspended rod, the less it will attract.C. The more you bring the rod closer to the suspended rod, the more it will repel.D. The more you bring the rod closer to the suspended rod, the less it will repel.
33Electric Field The electric field is a field force per unit charge. An electric field exists in a region if a stationary charged object (test charge – usually positive) experiences an electric force because of its charge.Set up charge on Van de Graff, and then use pith ball to explore field. Point out that magnitude and direction of force on pith ball changes over time.
34Electric Field Vector The electric field at any point is a vector. The direction of the electric field is the direction in which a small positive charge would move if placed there.The magnitude of the electric field (E) is the force per unit charge at that point:The electric field is measured in N/C.
3518.6 The Electric FieldIt is the surrounding charges that create the electric field at a given point.
36Electric fields from different sources add as vectors. 18.6 The Electric FieldElectric fields from different sources add as vectors.
37Electric Field LinesElectric field lines are lines of force providing a map of the electric field in the space surrounding electric charges.Electric field lines represent the strength and direction of an electric field at any point around a charged object.Electric field lines do not really exist, however, they offer a useful means of analyzing electric fields.Not in the notes
38Electric Field LinesElectric field lines run in the direction of the field at each point.Lines begin on positive charges (or infinity) and end at negative charges (or infinity).Lines do not cross.The magnitude of the field is shown by the number of lines in a given area.
39Electric Field Lines – sketch this!! Not in the notes
40Electric Field Lines – sketch this!! The number of lines leaving a positive charge or entering anegative charge is proportional to the magnitude of the charge.
41Electric Field Lines – sketch this!! Now sketch two negative charges!!
43Electric Field Strength Electric field strength depends on charge and distance.𝐸= 𝑘 𝑐 𝑞 𝑟 2𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ=𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 × 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 2
44Example Problem #3A typical thundercloud has an electric field of about 3.0 x105 N/C. If the electric field is directed toward the ground, what is the electric force on an 18 nC charge in this field?G: E = 3.0 x 105 N/C, q = 1.8 x 10-8 CU: Felectric = ?E:S:S: 5.4 x 10-3 N directed towards the ground
45Class assignment Due By the end of class Will not accept late work