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York College: Public Services Introduction to Terrorism Jonathan Jackson MSC, BSC.

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1 York College: Public Services Introduction to Terrorism Jonathan Jackson MSC, BSC.

2 What are we going to cover today? Origins of Terrorism. Definition of Terrorism and its Problems. Terrorism in the 21 st Century and Globalisation. Motivations for Terrorism. Terrorist threats to the UK.

3 Terrorism: A introduction What do you know about Terrorism? Are you interested in the subject of Terrorism? Do you think that Terrorism impacts on you as a student?

4 Terrorism Do you think Terrorism is a 21 st Century creation? No, Terrorism dates back to the Roman Empire, where Julius Caesar described many of his enemies during the conquest of Gaul as “masters of terror”. Many of the tactics that the Barbarian clans used against Caesar mirror those used by the Terrorist groups today. However the first use of the term Terrorist came during the French Revolution during a period known as the Reign of Terror ( ). During a period of political turmoil after the Louis XIV, a small radical group known as the Jacobins, seized power of the government. They saw that the only way to bring France back into political security was through a dictatorship and mass executions and purges of those who they deemed enemy of the states.

5 This period of wide scale killings was described by the French people as the Reign of Terror and the Jacobins who where responsible for this Terror were described by the French people as Terrorists because they were the proponents of the Terror.

6 It would not be the last time the we would hear the term “Terrorism”. Anarchists during the early 20 th Century. First World War Russian Revolution 1917 Politics of the 1930’s Second World War Cold War

7 Oxford Dictionary Definition (2011) “The unofficial or unauthorized use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims” UN, NATO, British Government, USA Government all have different ideas of what Terrorism is? Actions-US Motivation-UK Characteristics and Tactics -NATO ISAF In their book Political Terrorism, Schmidt and Youngman cited 109 different definitions of what terrorism is what is a terrorist organisation.

8 Why then is Terrorism so difficult to define? There are several reasons why Terrorism is difficult to define. The principle problem with Terrorism is that the term “Terrorist Organisation” is not often voluntarily adopted by the organisation themselves. Instead they are labelled as such by others and mostly by the Government who is being attacked by such a group. What one state may define as a Terrorist Organisation another state may not.

9 Different States and Non-State actors defined different groups and actions by as Terrorism. States also find it increasingly easier to come up with new definitions for Terrorism to meet new threats. Cyber Terrorism Threats posed by Globalisation.

10 It is also difficult to define because it is assumed that a Terrorist Organisation is immediately illegal. The earlier Revolutionary Groups who used “Terrorism” particularly in Latin America during the 1960’ and 1970’, tried to overthrow violent political regimes and they deemed their violence as “the ends justify the means”. How then can you differentiate between crime, political violence, war and Terrorism? What is innocence? The difficulty in defining Terrorism is no more clearly shown than in the cliché: “One Mans Terrorist is another Mans Freedom Fighter”. Syria 1980

11 What are the different Motivations for Terrorism? Extremist Religious Ideologies Extremist Racial Groups Nationalism Revolutionary Political Non-Political Locality Issues -State: This is where State Organisations carry out sanctioned terrorist attacks. (Hamas) -State Sponsored: This is where a state either directly or indirectly carries out terrorism. Supply of financial or military support. (ISI and Pakistan) -Terrorist Groups: Al Qaeda, IRA, ETA -Lone Wolfs: Timothy Mc Veigh, David Copeland

12 Terrorism in the 21 st Century Killcullen (2010) The Accidental Guerrilla. Social Breakdown: This is where Terrorist group emerges and exploits the situation. Spread of Ideas: Terrorist groups then begin to try and spread their ideas and undermine a political government. Government Response: This can either stop the movement or make the situation worse. Outcome: Terrorist groups will either gain political power or they will be defeated. Globalisation

13 The Power of Nightmares Adam Curtis:

14 Current Threats to the United Kingdom The UK government have a system of defining the threat level posed from Terrorist Groups. Low - an attack is unlikely Moderate - an attack is possible, but not likely Substantial - an attack is a strong possibility Severe - an attack is highly likely Critical - an attack is expected imminently Substantial: UK Current as of July Will rise due to the London Olympics 2012.

15 Who Poses the Terrorist Threat: Al-Qaeda: Radical Islamic Organisation Affiliated Groups: Endless List with organisations based in Pakistan, Lebanon, Somalia, Yemen, Afghanistan and Iraq. Irish Republican Army and other affiliated groups. Loyalist Paramilitary Groups Far Right Extremist Groups: English Defence League, Combat 18 Animal Rights Extremists.

16 Terrorism: What you see, Might not be what you see!

17 Thank you very much for your attention. Questions?


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